8th Grade STAAR Study Cards
Terms in this set (66)
Reasons for Exploration
Wealth, Claim Land, Expand Empires (Gold, God, Glory)
Spain during Exploration
Claimed/influenced Florida, Texas, and California
New England Economy (Colonies)
Fishing, lumber, trade, natural harbors
Southern Economy (Colonies)
Plantations, cash crops, Transatlantic Slave Trade
1st Anti-slavery group. Lived in Pennsylvania
a place for Catholics to live peacefully
Reasons for growth of Representative/Self Government
distance from Britain, town meetings, Mayflower Compact, Virginia House of Burgesses, Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
"No Taxation Without Representation"
main reason why colonist went to war with Britain.
the British response to the Boston Tea Party. It increased tension between the colonists and the British.
rights such as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, which are given to a person at birth
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution. France would join the Patriots after they won this battle.
Articles of Confederation
First government we had before the U.S. Constitution. Congress had the power to negotiate treaties and declare war. The states were stronger than the Federal Government
Law that established a way for adding new states to the United States. A state needed 5,000 people for a government and 60,000 to apply to become a state
Agreement that decided how many representatives each state got to send to congress. (Created the Senate and the House of Representatives)
agreement over how slaves would count for representation and for taxation. For every 5 slaves, 3 would count towards a state's population.
Federalists (not the political party)
Supported the ratification of the constitution. They wanted a stronger Federal Government. Alexander Hamilton and James Madison were members of this group.
They were opposed to the Constitution. They believed that the Federal Government would be too powerful under the Constitution. They wanted a Bill of Rights added to it. Patrick Henry and George Mason were members of this group.
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power.
1st Amendment of the Constitution
Right to freedom of religion, speech, press, petition, assembly.
4th Amendment of the Constitution
No unreasonable searches and seizures.
6th Amendment of the Constitution
Right to a trial by jury
8th Amendment of the Constitution
No cruel or unusual punishment
10th Amendment of the Constitution
Rights that are not given to the Federal Government belong to the State Governments. This is the same thing as FEDERALISM
How the Constitution addressed the grievances included in the Declaration of Independence
Quartering of soldiers - 3rd Amendment;
Searches without a warrant - 4th Amendment;
No trial by jury - 6th Amendment;
King George rejecting laws - Congress can override a veto (checks and balances)
Hamilton's Financial Plan
1) Established a National Bank
2) Pay off war debt
3) Pass a whiskey tax
4) Protective tariffs
protest over federal whiskey tax. Washington used force to stop the rebellion
Washington's Farewell Address
Washington warned against have permanent military alliances, and the creation of political parties
one of the first 2 political parties. created by Alexander Hamilton. They wanted the Federal Government to have more power.
one of the first 2 political parties. Led by Thomas Jefferson. They wanted the Federal Government to have less power. They also opposed the National Bank
Alien and Sedition Acts
During John Adams' presidency. These acts discouraged immigration and also disallowed people to speak out against the government (went against the 1st amendment). This act angered many Americans
Marbury v. Madison
Supreme Court case that established Judicial Review (which means the Supreme Court can declare laws to be unconstitutional)
Issued by James Monroe. It prevented European nations from continuing to colonize land in the Western Hemisphere (the Americas)
South Carolina believed that they could nullify the protective tariff (tariff of abominations). This crisis dealt with states' rights vs. federal rights
Worcester v. Georgia
Cherokee sue to keep their land. The Supreme Court ruled in their favor, but Andrew Jackson refused to enforce their decision and removed the Cherokee from their land anyway
Hudson River School
School for artists. The artists who went to this school typically painted landscapes and nature.
Effects of the War of 1812
The United States became more industrial. U.S. manufacturing increased.
Invented by Eli Whitney. Resulted in people planting more cotton and increased the need for more slave labor
Invented by Eli Whitney. It was a more efficient way to make things. It led to mass production and a lower price of manufactured goods.
Factories and Women
Women would stop working from home and would work in factories instead. These women would move to cities and work in textile mills (cloth factories).
man made rivers, transportation of goods became faster, price of goods drop, and cities grew
resulted in faster and more efficient transportation of goods, the prices of goods decreased. Invented by Robert Fulton.
invention used to communicate rapidly over long distances.
People moving from rural areas (farms) to cities to work in factories.
Irish immigrants came to the U.s. because of potato famine in Ireland. Immigrants worked in factories and on small farms.
People felt America was destined to own the land from the Atlantic to Pacific oceans. President James K. Polk supported this belief.
U.S. got this land from Britain in a treaty. This allowed the U.S. to own land from Atlantic to Pacific Oceans.
U.S. - Mexican War
caused by the U.S. annexing Texas. Led to a border dispute the U.S. and Mexico.
the land that the U.S. received as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo (ended the U.S. Mexican War)
Came to the U.S. during the gold rush. They also worked on the transcontinental railroad.
2nd Great Awakening
movement to encourage people to be more religious, resulted in people wanting social reform, to change America for the better
movement to get Americans to drink less or no alcohol. Women were a part of this movement.
People who worked to end slavery. They achieved their goal when the 13th Amendment was passed.
Each section of the country developed different ways of life. North had factories, South had slavery and agriculture, West had mining for gold.
Northern Economy (1800's)
Textile mills, trade, factories, immigrants
Southern Economy (1800's)
Plantation system, slave labor, cotton was produced and sent to the North.
Fugitive Slave Law
part of the Compromise of 1850. Runaway slaves were to be captured and returned to the South.
Dred Scott v. Sandford
Supreme Court ruling that said that slaves were property and not citizens. The 14th Amendment would eventually give citizenship to all African Americans.
Lincoln freed all slaves in the rebelling Confederate states.
Battle/Siege of Vicksburg
Turning point of the Civil War. The North was able to gain control of the Mississippi River and cut the Confederacy in half.
Appomattox Court House
The place where Robert E. Lee (Confederacy) surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant (Union). This ended the Civil War.
The process of bringing the South back into the Union after the Civil War.
provided: food, clothing, jobs, medical care, schools for former slaves (freedmen)
13th Amendment of the Constitution
14th Amendment of the Constitution
granted citizenship to African Americans. All Americans were to be treated equally under the law.
15th Amendment of the Constitution
African American men were allowed to vote.
A railroad that connected the East to the West. Resulted in the settlement of the West. Opened new markets to sell goods to. Price of products decreased now that they were easier to get.