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psych 100 exam 2
Terms in this set (24)
what is developmental psychology
the study of continuity and change across the life span
does development happen in stages or gradually?
both, some happen in stages, most are gradual, mostly MESSY
what is synaptic pruning?
"use it or lose it"
-babies are born with many more neurons than adults
-experience will strengthen neuronal networks over others
-environment is huge
toxins that can impair development of fetus and beyond
-lead in water
-drugs and alcohol
what is perceptual development
The process by which infants learn to make sense of the sights, sounds, tastes, and other sensations to which they are exposed. (18-24 months)
What is motor development?
-mostly driven by experience, genes can play a role
-infants are born with reflexes
Movement of head toward one side if cheek or mouth is stroked (nipple seeking)
sucks any object that enters mouth
soles of feet touch anything- starts trying to walk
growing from head to toe
growing from center of body to outside
(can wave arms before. controlling fingers)
the emergence of the ability to think and understand and reason with the world
what are the stages to Piaget's theory
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
What is the sensorimotor stage?
the child begins to interact with and learn about physical world (0-2)
what is the pre operational stage
the child begins to represent the world symbolically (2-6/7)
-first stage of childhood
What is the concrete operational stage?
the child learns rules such as conservation (7/11-12)
What is the formal operational stage?
the adolescent can transcend the concrete situation and think about the future (12-adulthood)
-final stage of cognitive development
-some adults never make it to this stage
what is assimilation
when infants apply theories to new situations
What is accommodation?
when infants revise theories based on disconfirming information
What is object permanence?
when infant can form mental representation of objects even when out of sight
(develops gradually from 4 months)
what is conservation
the ability to understand that simply changing the appearance of an object does not change the object's nature
What is egocentrism?
inability to understand that the world looks differently to others
(Theory of mind)
Abilities in the concrete operational stage
-greater ability for symbolic representation, use of logic
-most can master conservation talk
-mastered theory of mind
-can't grasp abstract concepts
abilities of formal operational stage
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