Psychology 13

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Personality
Complex set of unique psychological qualities that influence an individual's characteristic patterns of behavior
Theories help achieve two main goals:
1. Understand the structure, origins, and correlates of personality
2. Predicting behavior and life events
Different approaches
1. Structure of personality
2. How it develops
3. What people do
4. How people feel
5. People with problems
6. Healthy people
Type and trait personality theories _____ personality.
Describe
Categorizing by types was grouping people into _____ categories called personality types.
Distinct
Hippocrates categorized by four body humors.
1. Blood- cheerful, active
2. Black bile - sad, brooding
3. Phlegm - apathetic, sluggish
4. Yellow bile - irritable, excitable
William Sheldon related physique to temperament.
1. Endomorphic - relaxed, sociable, find of eating
2. Mesomorphic - physical, assertive, courageous
3. Ectomorphic - brainy, artistic, introverted
Frank Sulloest proposed a theory on birth order.
1. First borns - command parents love and attention, identify and comply with parents
2. Later borns - rebel, seek to excel where older sibs have not
Traits
Enduring qualities of attributes that influence behavior across situations
Allport's Trait Approach
1. Cardinal traits - organizes and drives life. Not everyone has.
2. Central traits - major characteristics of a person
3. Secondary traits - specific personal features that don't understand personality but can predict behavior (color or food favorites)
Raymond Cattel said there are ___ factors that underlie human personality known as _____ like: ____________.
1. 16
2. Source traits
3. Reserved vs outgoing, relaxed vs tense, trusting vs suspicious
Hans Eysenck had three broad dimensions.
1. Extraversion (internal/external)
2. Neuroticism (emotionally stable/unstable)
3. Psychotism (kind-considerate/aggressive-antisocial)
Five-factor model
1. Extraversion
2. agreeableness
3. conscientiousness
4. neuroticism
5. Openness
Behavioral genetics
Study of degree that personality traits are influenced by genetic factors
Consistency paradox. Personalities were found to be consistent by ______
but inconsistent across _______. Partly because situations were not categorized by psychological features of situations.
Others; situations
Type and trait theories ______ personality but don't _____ it.
Describe; explain
Psychodynamic theories
-- Freud
-- Powerfjl inner forces shape personality and motivate behavior (intrapsychic events)
--Some unconscious
--All behavior has a reason behind it
Freud labeled three basic drives (instincts) that motivate behavior.
1. Eros -- sexual urges, pleasure seeking, continuation of species
2. Self-preservation (survival instinct)
3. Thanatos -- death wish, drives aggressive and adrenaline rush behavior
Psychosexual Development
1. Oral: 0-1, mouth, sucking
2. Anal: 2-3, anus, control bowels
3. Phallic: 4-5, genitals, Oedipus complex
4. Latency: 6-12, no area, pleasure of school, learning, play
5. Genital: 13-18, genitals, mature sexual intimacy (giving/receiving)
Psyche determinism
Assumption that all mental and behavioral reactions are determined by earlier experiences
Id
Fundamental drives of personality, irrational, seeks immediate gratification
Superego
Holds the values, morals, conscience, ideal person, conflict with id
Ego
Reality self that compromises between superego and id
When impulses are repressed they _____ gone and _______ to personality functioning. Repression is an important ___________.
1. Are not
2. Contribute
3. Coping/ego defense mechanisms
Major defense mechanisms
1. Denial
2. Displacement: unacceptable feelings placed on less dangerous object
3. Fantasy
4. Identification:
Copying another person
5. Isolation: compartmentalize
When psychodynamic theories were extended ther was more emphasis on _____ and _________, less emphasis on ________, and development was extended beyond childhood.
1. Ego; social variables
2. Libido
Alfred Adler
--rejected Eros and pleasure principle
--inferiority
Karen Horney
--womb envy
Carl Jung
-- collective unconscious
-- archetype (animus, anima, mandala)
-- two unconscious instincts: need to create and need to become whole individual
Humanistic theories focus on integrity of the persons _____ and _____ experience and _____ potential. Emphasis on the drive toward ____________.
1. Conscious
2. Personal
3. Growth
4. Self-actualization
Carl Rogers stressed ________ and positive ______.
1. Unconditional positive regard
2. Self-regard
Karen Horney believed that people have a ______ that needs a __________ to be self-actualized.
1. Real self
2. Favorable environment
Humanistic theories are:
1. Holistic -- whole personality
2. Dispositional -- qualities within influence person
3. Phenomenological-- subjev
Criticism of Humanistic Theories
-- concepts are too fuzzy and difficult to research
-- focus on human nature not individual qualities
-- neglect the environment
Social-Learning and Cognitive theories say that personality is a sum of a person's __________________. __________ processes are also important.
1. reinforcement history
2. Cognitive
Rotter's Expectancy Theory
--expectancy (belief that a behavior will result in a certain reward)
-- if a behavior has led to a reward in the past you will expect it to happen again
-- reward value (value a particular person places on reward)
-- locus of control (outcomes are dependent on internal, what someone does, or external, the environment)
Mischel Cognitive-Affective Personality Theory
-- people actively participate in cognitive organization of their interaction in the environment
-- Five variable determine your response to a situation
1. encodings (categorize self, people, events)
2. expectancies/beliefs
3. affects (feelings and emotions)
4. goals and values
5. competencies (behaviors you can accomplish)
Bandura's Cognitive Social-Learning Theory
-- social setting
-- cognitive processes that are involved in acquiring and maintaining patters of behavior
-- reciprocal determinism (examine all components to understand behavior/personality)
-- self-effficacy
Self efficacy
belief that one can do something
1) accomplishments in the past
2) vicarious experiences
3) persuading
4) monitoring of your emotions (anxiety = low expectations, excitement means hi expectations)
Cantors Social Intelligence
-- experience people bring to their experiences of life tasks
--three types of individual differences
1) choice of life goals
2) knowledge relevant to social interactions
3) strategies for implementing goals (problem-solving)
Criticisms of social learning and cognitive theories say that they overlook _______ and _________ motivation. Vague explanations about development of ______________.
1. emotion, unconscious
2. adult personality
Self Theories
--how each person manages their sense of self
--William James
1) material me
2) social me
3) spiritual me
self-concept
dynamic mental structure that motivates, interprets, organizes, mediates and regulates intrapersonal and interpersonal behaviors/processes
self-handicapping behavior
deliberately sabotage their performances so they have an excuse for failure (not lack of ability)
Self theories are criticized for _______________, unclear factors and no _________ factors of personality.
1. limitless boundaries
2. "inherited"
MMPI
-- objective test of 550 items, T or F
-- used in clinical settings
-- 10 clinical and validity scales
NEO-PI
-- objective test designed for non-clinical adults
-- measures five factor model of personality
-- 30 traits
Rorschach
-- subjective test of ambiguous inkblots
-- scored on three features
1). location or part of card
2) content
3) determinants (color? shading?)
TAT
-- Henry Murray
-- pictures of ambiguous scenes, subjects make up stories
-- identifies differences and need for achievement