Terms in this set (21)
Techniques used to study brain and behavior
Draganski et al (juggling and how non jugglers brain developed using MRI)
Fisher et al - Dopamine and romantic love showed that a specific pattern of activation in the brain in response to the photographs of loved ones, especially prominent in dopamine-rich areas, studied with an MRI. (pic of loved one, activity, pic of neutral, activity)
Milner (1997) HM used tests such as mazes and memory tests. removed medium temporal lobe which is part of hippocampus and amygdala.
Broca - "Tan" (1861) Broca had a subject that could only say the word tan after facing inconveniences during his life. After tan died, broca performed an autopsy that determined Brocas area which was responsible for the loss of coherent speech. Brocas aphasia is the illness.
Draganski et al (juggling using MRI)
Neurotransmitters on Behavior
Crockett et al (Trolley problem) Used the SSRI of citalopram to increase serotonin in the body which makes people less likely to interfere and more sympathetic.
Hormones and Behavior
Scheele et al oxytocin in human fidelity showed that people are loyal when in stable relationship. oxytocin (OXT) has been identified as a key facilitator of both interpersonal attraction and the formation of parental attachment.
Pheromones and behavior
Lundstrom and Olsson (2005)
Use of AND on mood of women AND increased women's mood in the presence of a male experimenter, but not a female experimenter. androstadienone has the ability to modulate women's mood in that they feel more focused. androstadienone exposure would modulate participating women's mood and corresponding behavior as measured by attention task. Thirty-seven women participated in a double-blind, within-group experiment and were tested by either a female or a male experimenter. Effects on mood, psychophysiological arousal, were assessed. The results showed that exposure to a non-detectable amount of androstadienone modulated women's psychophysiological arousal and mood in a positive direction. Moreover, mood effects were only evident when an experimenter of the opposite sex conducted the testing.
Genes and Behavior
Bouchard and McGue (1981) Twin Studies on Heritability of Intelligence
At the same time, it is not completely inherited. Even for MZ twins reared together, the correlation between their IQ scores is not perfect, which shows that the environment plays a certain role in the development of IQ.
Bouchard et al (1990) To determine how much of intelligence is attributed to genetics and environment. Similarity rates between MZTs reared apart was approximately 76% Bouchard determined a heritability estimate of 70% of intelligence attributed to genetics, and 30% to other factors.
Evolutionary explanation for behavior
pregnant ladies vomit to more deadly/infectious things bc of evolution
Models of Memory
Glanzer and Cunitz (1966, experiment 2)- primary and recency effect
STM and LTM are two separate memory store.
remember first and last words not middle
Roediger and McDermott (2000) - themes of memory
Lists made up of only situation features can elicit a gist and produce false memories. Considering semantic relations leads to a better understanding of gist formation.
Bartlett (1932) - "War of the Ghost" would tell a native american folktale over and over again and the story would become more generalized and americanized. Canoe would become boat and hunting seals became fishing. shows that memory is inaccurate.
Thinking and decision making
Albarracin et al (2001)
understand why people choose to use or not use condoms. people are therefore more likely to use condoms if they have previously formed the corresponding intentions.
Payne et al (1997) To see if task-related negative emotion will encourage decision makers to process information more extensively (because they attach more importance to the accuracy of the decision) but also in a way that avoids emotionally difficult trade-offs between options.
Loftus and Palmer (1974)
Word choice changes how people remember things. misleading postevent information influences eyewitness accounts of an event due to either genuine memory change or response bias.
Biases in thinking and decision making
Tversky and Kahneman (1981)- Framing Effect
The only difference between the two groups is in how the situation is described, either in terms of potential gains ("will be saved") or potential losses ("will die"). This should not matter for a rational decision-maker, so the observed reversal of choices is a deviation from the normative expected utility theory.
Influence of emotion on cognitive processes
Brown and Kulik (1977)- The Theory Of Flashbulb Memory
Black participants more likely to have vivid elaborate memories around those national leaders who were involved with US civil rights. Occurrence of flashbulb memories correlated in both populations with feelings of personal consequentiality. Flashbulb memories correlated with frequency of overt rehearsal
social identity theory
Tajfel et al. 1971 - Minimal Group Experiment One
Participants demonstrate in-group favoritism and out-group discrimination when categorized into groups based on trivial criteria. Placed 64 boys into groups based on their perspective of a painting. Then they were brought into a room and given virtual money to distribute, they gave the money to their group not other groups.
Cialdini et al. (1976) investigated when people associate with certain things, showed that people were more likely to wear apparel for a team when that team won rather than when they lost. Demonstrates that people seek a positive social identity and that their social identity is affected by being a part of their group so that you are more positive towards anything that your own group represents. Also shows that group behavior affects an individual.
social cognitive theory
Bandura and Ross (1961), Bobo Doll Experiment
Perry and Rasmussen (1986), Aggression and self-efficiency in children. To explore the links between aggression and two cognitive factors that might influence children's decisions about whether to behave aggressively. Aggressive children reported that it is easier to perform aggression. They were also more confident that aggressive behavior would lead to rewards. Children's perceptions of their self-efficacy and children's knowledge of the consequences of their actions are factors that contribute to aggressive behavior
Steele and Aronson (1995) - stereotype threat
people got scared/depressed when they feared proving bad stereotypes
Hamilton & Gifford (1976) To investigate illusory correlation of group size and negative behavior. Group A (majority group); performed 18 positive and 8 negative behaviours. Group B (minority) performed 9 positive and 4 negative behaviours. Showed that Group B members and negative behaviours are both numerically fewer and therefore more distinct than Group A members and negative behaviour, therefore, stands out more than the Group A members causing illusory correlation.
Culture and behavior/cognition
Chiu (1972) - Cognitive Styles in Chinese and US Students
Chinese students process stimuli holistically rather than analytically. They prefer to categorize objects on the basis of interdependence or relationships, while US students prefer to focus on components of the stimulus and categorize on the basis of membership in abstract groups.
Bradley, Morris, and Simonson (2005)- Decision-making in Bilingual Individuals To investigate the effect of language manipulation (Cantonese versus English) in bicultural individuals on the decision-making process shows that Culture affects decision-making processes through language; even the same bilingual individuals may prefer to make different decisions depending on which language they are speaking.
Originally Hofstede identified four dimensions, later research refined the theory and added two more dimensions: long-term versus short-term orientation and indulgence versus self-restraint. Questionnaire for thousands of IBM employees across cultures. Cultures answered differently, (Individualist vs collectivist, masculine vs feminine, power distance, uncertainty advance)
Finkelstein (2010) To examine the effect of culture on volunteer behavior the researchers concluded that individualists and collectivists differ in why they choose to volunteer but not in the willingness to volunteer itself
Trainor et al. (2012)
active music making of infants and parents promotes enculturation conforming to their own culture. assigned to 6 months of either an active participatory music class or a class. Active music participation resulted in earlier enculturation to Western tonal pitch structure, larger and/or earlier brain responses to musical tones, and a more positive social trajectory. the data suggest that early exposure to cultural norms of musical expression leads to early preferences for those norms. We conclude that musical enculturation begins in infancy and that active participatory music making in a positive social setting accelerates enculturation.
ODDEN & ROCHAT (2004)
researchers watched children in key parts of everyday life and held interviews with caretakers, teachers, and other adults. Samoan culture is more authoritative than individual by age 12 kids were skilled fisherman despite never having been supervised/taught by age 15 kids spent time doing chores but never had the chores explained to them
Shah et al. (2015)
Acculturation may contribute to unhealthy eating behaviours, resulting in obesity and being overweight. This may be explained by the fact that migrants are moving into a culture that promotes more unhealthy eating behaviour, compared to their culture of origin.
Ishizawa and Jones (2016) - Obesity in Asian Migrants in the USA Second- and third-generation migrants had a higher likelihood of obesity than first-generation migrants or people from their country of origin. However, there were moderating factors that protected against developing obesity, which were:
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