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Physiology final -checkpoints
Terms in this set (100)
hydro-choleretic agent :
2nd portion of liver secretion is :
watery soln of
Max. volume of bile the gallbladder can hold is :
volume of bile that can be stored in the gallbladder is :
Mechanisms of bile concentration ?
(1)Na absorption by active transport
(2)2° absorption of Cl ions , water and most diffusible constituents
gallbladder evacuates lead to
release of bile from the gallbladder
effective emptying of gallbladder requires?
simultaneous relaxation of SO
ex on cholagogue agents that causes gallbladder contraction ?
CCK&Ach(and vagal stimulation)
functions of gallbladder ?
(1)stores and concentrates bile
(3)Acidification of bile secretion
causes relaxation of SO & contraction of gallbladder simultaneously ?
increase formation of bile
the only choleretic agents are :
bile acids & bile salts
Primary bile acids (75%)
cholic acid & chenodeoxycholic acid
secondary bile acids(25%)
deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid
aa used in bile conjugation ?
majority of bile salts is absorbed by ?(in?)
Na-bile Salt co-transport system.
in : terminal ileum
role of colonic bacteria in absorption of bile salts ?
conjugation > bile
(lipopholic)> passive diffusion
normal rate of bile pool of bile salt synthesis ?
primary site of bile salts absorption ?
effect of ileal resection on bile acid pool
after ileal resection , bile acids aren't re-circulated to the liver > excreted in feces (more than 1-5%) >depletion of bile acid pool>impaired fat absorption >
All of the following are functions of colon :
(1)Absorption of water&electrolytes from the chyme to form feces
(2)storage of fecal matter until it can be expelled
proximal 1/2 of the colon : absorption.
distal 1/2 of the colon :
each haustration usually reaches peak intensity in about ? disappears during ?
30 secs / disappears during the next 60 secs
amount of feces expelled daily ?
mass movements in large intestine
1-3 times each day
movements of colon are coordinated by ?
BER of the colon
Initiation of mass movements by ?
Irritation in the colon
duodenocolic & gastrocolic reflexes are transmitted by ?
BER at cecum& sigmoid colon ?
cecum : 2/min
sigmoid colon : 6/min
undigested plant fibers
intestinal bacteria distribution :
few if any
More and more in
in the colon
3 types of intestinal bacteria are ?
amines produced by intestinal bacteria responsible for stool odor ?
major cause of death in radiation poisoning ?
external anal sphincter is controlled by a nerve called ?
the urge to defecate first occurs when?
rectal pressure inc to about
contents of the rectum are expelled when ?
rectal pressure is
ext&int anal sphincters relax
most normal humans defecate only once
---- to ---- days ?
Stimuli of mucous secretion by brunner glands ?
(1)Tactile/irritating stimuli on the duodenal wall
(3)GI hormones ;secretin
avg life of enterocyte
number of enterocytes that shed per day :
intestinal secretions formed by enterocytes at rate about ?
enzymes found within enterocytes?
(2)four enzymes for splitting disaccharides>monosaccharides
defensins are peptide Abs , secreted by ?
(folds of kerckring/plicae circularis)
primarily in jejunum .
surface area of the absorptive mucosa by
intestinal brush border consists of ?
as many as
related to intestinal microvilli :
form brush border , approx of 1000 microvilli
has length of :
& Diameter of :
simple sugars (mono&di)
(1)Maltose : Glc&Glc
(2)Trehalose : Glc&Glc
sugar -: Fructose&Glc
Salivary alpha-amylase (ptyalin)
inhibited at pH of
Glc&Gla are transported from the intestinal lumen into the cells by ?
((in the luminal membrane))
Role of Na/K ATPase in Glc&Gla absorption ?
keeps the intracellular[Na] low , this maintaining gradient across the luminal membrane .
Glc&Gla&Fructose leave the cell at the basolateral membrane by ?
facilitated diffusion via GLUT2
max rate of Glc absorption from the intestine us ?
lactose intolerance caused by ?
absence of brush border lactase
Lactose intolerance leads to ?
Gastric protein digestive enzymes?
trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase
Trypsinogen is converted to trypsin by
elastase, trypsin, chymotrypsin&pepsin.
of aa occurs in 3 places , they are ?
cytoplasm of mucosal cells
aa are transported from cell to blood by ?
dipeptides and tripeptides absorption
than free amino acids
(3)get hydrolyzed to aa once inside the cell by
Nucleic acid > nucleotides by ?
: Luminal surface of mucosal cells
: (1)Split nucleotides into nucleosides& phosphoric acid
(2)Split nucleosides into their constituent sugar& purine and pyrimidine bases.
purines and pyrimidines
are absorbed by ?
CCK and lipid digestion &absorption?
slows gastric emptying
, thus delivery of lipids from stomach to duodenum
to allow adequate time for digestion&absorption in the intestine .
MW of pancreatic lipase :
Anchor point helping lipase attach to triglyceride droplet by
pushing the bile salts away from the TAGs
Pro-colipase is activated by ?
cholesterol esterase (aka
carboxyl ester lipase
- Action :
cholesterol ester => cholesterol + FA
Secreted by : pancreas
Requirements for activation & action :
Lecithin => Lysolecithin + FA
aid digestion of other lipids by breaking up fat globular into
absence of apoprotein-B
which results in the inability to transport CM outside the intestinal cells
CM transported out the intestinal cells by ?
CM added to the bloodstream via?
low uptake of Bile salts
thus they remain available in the lumen for formation of new micelle s
avg normal conc. of short chain FAs is ?
Role of Gastrin hypersecretion
leads to inc H+ secretion > dec duodenal pH>
inactivation of pancreatic lipase
daily fluid loss in stool is ?
Amount of Na that
must be absorbed
by the intestine ?
Absorption of K+ ?
Net total daily absorption of K+?
Secretion of HCO3- in exchange w/ absorption of Cl- is of great importance , why ?
because it provides
alkaline bicarbonate ions
formed by bacteria
Absorption of Cl- ?
upper SI (jejunum) >
ileum > across the brush border by
in exchange for HCO3-
Calcium absorption relative to sodium absorption is ?
K+ secretion in the colon
is stimulated by
Absorption of Vitamins ?
travel in micelles & are absorbed by simple diffusion with lipids
• Vitamin B12 must combine with
from the stomach parietal cells before it is transported into the cells of the
- absorbed by
receptor mediated endocytosis
frequent complication of
loss of Iron
Iron enters the body from the enterocyte via ?
intracellular-iron binding protein ?
Excess iron is deposited esp in ?
(2)REC of BM
Apoferritin MW ?
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