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PS 414 midterm
Terms in this set (49)
2 tax models
High tax-developed welfare state, and low tax-low developed welfare state
Beginning of end of Cold War division
Government action for unemployment
Try to keep unemployment down, support unemployed
childhood and adolescence
Prime adulthood, ages 20 through 59
A new phase of late adulthood extending from ages 65 to 79 or longer, resulting from added years of longevity plus good health and financial stability, in which older adults pursue personally enriching interests and goals.
a model showing the three sources of income to fund an employee's retirement. Social security, personal savings, pension
Switch from pensions to 401k
1981. Public pension funds have independence from Wall Street and are less profitable
Machiavelli - Religion
Brings system of understanding onto secular thinking during medieval times
Argues that Protestant reformation happened at the same time as the switch between feudalism and capitalism
Notion of catholic obligation. Order of existence.
Higher class people have an obligation to lower class people
Early Protestantism in Weber's views
God intends for them to be poor and you shouldn't mess with what god intends
There's no way to move between classes
You're damned if you're born into unfortunate circumstance. Later transitioned to if you work hard enough.
Diversions of social thinking
Are human beings equal or unequal? Are human being altruistic or aggressive? Are human being essentially reasonable or fundamentally irrational?
European feudalistic model
Rural, based on loyalty between upper and lower classes, fief
land granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for loyalty and service. Not sellable.
16th-19th century Europe
Transition from feudalism-capitalism
US development model
No feudalistic background. No feudalism effects like Europe.
Studied philosophy in 19th century Germany, moved to France. Came to conclusion that economic understanding was lacking.
Marx distinguishes capitalism by explaining that majority of economy goes through market
2 concepts of social thought
Decommodification, social inclusion
Comes from Marx. Revolutionary tradition.
Comes from Durkheim. Reformist.
Indirect payments (aka taxes) for covering costs considered decommodification
As new means of production emerge, so do new forms of exploitation. One example is workers producing more than what's needed for wages. The 'extra' is surplus value, and produces profit for employers while workers don't get the full value of their work!
Labor Theory of Value (Marx)
When value and cost are out of line
More in favor of free market
Widely used in LA to refer to free market liberalism
Theory based on the principles of John Maynard Keynes, stating that government spending should increase during business slumps and be curbed during booms. 60-70.
(1912- ) American economist. Conservative thinker famous for his advocacy of monetarism (an revision of the quantity theory of money) in works like A Monetary History of the United States, 1867-1960 (1963). he is strongly associated with the ideals of laissez-faire government policy.
Durkheim's past vs present society
Division of labor:simple/complex. Consciousness:conformity/individualism. Law:repressive/restituted.
division of labor
Horizontal:specialization. Vertical:class/difference between top and notion.
Modern society's purpose
Creating interdependence among people. The state needs to coordinate the interdependence.
No person should be marginalized.
Destructuralization if people's lives bc rate of change in modern societies is higher. Durkheim is a structuralist.
We come into the world w dual Eros (need love, and express love)
We come into the world w dual Thanatos (need to be aggressive towards people, need for self destruction)
Retirement, disability, healthcare. Trying to develop alternative to socialism so that there's loyalty to the state.
National health service. Not social insurance, but deLs with same problem. Instead of being a separate fund, it's tax based
United States welfare states big bang
Social security in 1930's, Medicare in 1960's
Piven and Cloward
government expands welfare programs in weak economic times and cuts programs in boom times
Clinton Reform of 1996
Removed income from poor, stimulated illegal economy
Poles of contemporary modern economy
Private market (you're on your own)-government (we're in this together)
National income distribution
Individual income, social income (the level of distribution is a political choice)
2 forms of social income
Means tested (need based), universal (social insurance)
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