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Terms in this set (14)
Tajfel (1970-1971) (SIT)
Aim: To investigate if boys placed and arbritrary task (minimal group) would display ingroup favouritism and intergroup discrimination.
PPS: 64 boys.
Procedure: The boys came to labratory in 8 separate groups. The boys in each group knew each other well. Part 1 was to establish categorization. 2. researchers assessed the effects of the categorization on inter-group behavior. The boys had to perform a task to determine how much in group favorutism and out group discrmination they had. The boys had to divide money between the groups. Choices made could have been made to produce the maximum joint profit, maximum fairness, or maximum differentiation.
Results: The choice the boys made were to to maximize differentiation.
Aim: Investigate whether nonsense syllables associated with in-group pronouns will be positively evaluated and nonsense syllables associated with in-group pronouns will be negatively evaluated.
PPS: 23 undergraduate psyc students.
Procedure: pps presented with 108 trials of apparently negative randomly paired letter strings on a computer screen. Each letter string consisted of nonsense syllable presented with either in group or out group pronoun. or in control group other pronouns. pps had to rate whether it was real word or not. and then how pleasant they found the word to be.
Results: Syllables that were associated with in group were rated much more pleasant than outgroup. The positive effects of in group was found higher than negative effects of out-group.
Bandura 1963 (Social Cognitive Theory)xxxx
Aim: Designed to investigate the effects of a model being rewarded or punished.
PPS: 40 boys and 40 girls from nursery school
Procedure: Children were randomly allocated into 4 different groups with two experimental groups, and two control groups. 1. Aggressive model-rewarded, where rocky attacks jordan and is "rewarded". 2. Agressive-model punished Rocky attacks then is "punished". 3. Non- agressive model control group. Rocky and johnny play together 4. Not shown any film. Then children were taken into a room with toys. where resarchers measured aggression.
Results: Aggression was found higher in aggressive model rewarded conditionn and lowest in aggressive model punished. When imitative agression was higher in agression rewarded group. Imitative agression was low in control groups.
Heydari (Social Cognative Theory)
Aim: To examine the effect of Bandura's social cognative theory implentation on addiction quitting.
PPS: 60 clients all addicted to opium.
procedure: pps randomly assigned to to two groups: test and control. Intervention based on Banduras social cognitive theory was carried out. experimental group recieveed 8 sessions, according to the steps of the model, run by group discussion. such as teaching problem solving, communication and self regulatory skills and echancement of self.efficacy. Control group recieved conventional treatment.
Results: experimental group was more successful. Difference in self-efficacy was also found before and after intervention in test group. Researchers claim that higher self efficacy helped them to quit because they were confident in themselves to quit smkoking.
Sherif 1961 (Formation of stereotypes) (Ethical)
Aim: Investigate the effects of competition between groups and the effect of having a goal in common.
PPS: 24 eleven year old boys.
Procedure: Performed at isolated camp. Experiment was divided into three phases, each lasted about a week. Purpose of first week was to form two different groups, children were kept seperately to cooperate in the gorup. Second was to create conflict between the groups. A tournament was held where the groups had to compete with eachother. thirdly to create cooperation. The boys had to work together to fix the water supply.
Results: When the tournment started the two groups expressed negative atitudes about the other group. Called names etc. Boys had more positive view on in group, but negative on out group. In the third phase, the boys were starting to come together and become friends.
Steele and Aronson (1995) (Effects of stereotypes)
Aim: investigate how stereotype threat affects test performance in African Americans.
PPS: 114 male and female.
Procedure: In experimental condition pps were told that the test tested for intellectual ability. Second condition pps were told it had nothing to do with their intelligence.
Results: African Americans did poorly when they belived that the test tested their intelligence. But did just as well as the white americans when told that it didn't have anything to do with their intelligence.
Johns et al (2005) (Effects of stereotypes)
Aim: To investigate whether a stereotype threat exists in women when it comes to their mathematical abilities.
PPS: 144 students
Procedure: Three different conditions. 1. Problem solving condition. 2. Math tests condition. 3: Teaching intervention: told the same thing as math condition in addition told about stereotype threat effect.
Results: clear difference between the different conditions. In problem solving condition women scored better than men. Math test condition mens performance was superior. Lastly the teaching intervention there was barely any difference.
Odden & Rochat (2004) (RS Method. participant Observation)
AIM: Investigate how Samoan children were encultured by observing their parents, other adults, older siblings, and peers.
PPS: 28 children
Procedure: Longitudal study of 25 months. Researchers observed children in different contexts and conducted semi-structured interviews with adults and children surrounding the children.
Results: The researchers found that also young children perform many households chores that theu probably will have required through observing. They found that children would teach themselves to fish based on what they had observed from other adults fishing. The children had learned rituals and behaviors from observing.
Osterweil & Nagano (1991) (RS Method: Interview) (CIIAIB)
Aim: To investigate the ideas that Japanese and Israeli mothers hold about autonomous behaviours of their 5 year old children.
PPS: 60 Japanese and 60 Israeli mothers
Procedure: pps were interviewed about their childs capacity to be independent.
Results: For Japanese mothers they expressed that theyre independence showed that they moving fromexclusive ties with mother towards interactiong with other children. While isreali mothers expressed it as indepence. Japanense expressed that their independence was not instrumental independence, but rather signs of obedience.
AIM: Evaluate similarities and differences in relative agreement between mothers
Kulkofsky (2011) (RS method: questionaire) (COBC)
AIM: Investigate the role of culture on flashbulb memory in five countries.
PPS: 274 adults from five countries.
Procedure: pps were given to recall memories. Researchers then constructed memory questionaire. They were asked about the importance of the event.
Results: Researchers found that in a collectivistic culture like China, personal importance and intensity of emotion played less of a role in predicting FBM. In individualistic cultures emotions are considered part of a persons uniqueness. Sharing memories is more valuable. In collectivistic societies there are lower levels of emotions.
J.W Berry (ethical) (COBC)
AIM: Investigate whether there is a difference in degree of conformity between the Temme people of Sierra Leone and Baffin Island Eskimo. PPS: 90 from temne 91 eskimos.
Procedure: Shown paper with 9 different lines. pps were asked to identify which line was the longest. One line had an x next to it which pps were told most people picked. Results: Conformity score was higher in Temne sample. Eskimo was lower.
Tadmor (2012) (acculturation)
AIM: To examine why living in another culture only benefits some people. PPS: 78 MBA students. Procedure: pps placed into three groups. 1. Bicultural 2. Separated 3. Assimilated. A series of tests where given to assess the effects living abroad had on the people. Results: The bicultural group outperformed the other groups in the measures of integrativecomplexity. Could be becuase they had more creative thinking and more flexible.
Miranda and Matheny (2000) (Ethical) (CIIAIB)
AIM: Ivestigate which factors in the lives of latino immigrants to the United states would decrease the level of acculturative stress. PPS: 197 Spanish-speaking american immigrants. Procedure: Particiapnts completed a questionaire and tests to assess family cohesion, level of acculturation, acculturative stress, and coping strategies for stress. Results: Found that immigrants with effective coping strategies, good english, and strong family structure were less likely to experience acculturative stress. Those who had spent longer time in the US were also less likely to experience stress.