Terms in this set (55)
the act of farming agricultural land until it loses it's fertility
When animals have eaten so much of the grass, the soil erodes away
an object made by human beings that shows the time period it was made
Homo sapiens sapiens
The scientific term for modern humans
the stone age (8,000 BCE)
the collection of social and political developments after the Ice age/ Agricultural Revoution
The belief in only one god
the time period where people learned how to work with and create bronze
advanced state of human society
Core and foundational
the 6 original civilizations that would influence successor civiizations
One of mankind's first cities on the bank of the Jordan river
another ancient city in present day Turky
cloth or goods produced by weaving or knitting
Specialization of labor
process allowing people to focus on specific jobs
malleable, ductile reddish brown metal
Copper and tin
the science, art, or occupation of cultivating land
a large amount that is greater than needed
Lifestyle of the people who led herds from one grazing land to another
Several related families that moved together in search of food
group of people with common descent
any gathering of people united by family ties, community customs or traditions, or adherence to the same leader
characteristic of any entity controlled by men
a person skilled in an applied art
a person who buys and sells commodities for profit
The hierarchical or vertical division of society according to rank, caste, or class
A person whose job tt is to preform religious rights
How did Homo sapiens sapiens first survive?
by hunting and gathering
How did people adapt to climate change?
They followed the animals and plants
Why is the Paleolithic period sometimes called the stone age?
Humans used stone tools and weapons
How did people adapt to new environments?
They adapted their technology to new conditions
What is the one of the greatest accomplishments of people in the Paleolithic period?
Learning how to control fire
What did controlling fire do to help people?
provide light and heat, protection against wild animals, smoke, prepare food, and help hunting
How did kinship groups, tribes, and clans learn about he world?
They traded people, goods, and ideas about religion and the world
How were functions in hunter-forager societies divided?
What did Paleolithic people center their religion on?
Forces of nature called animism
What evidence has been found about religion and art in the Paleolithic period?
Burial practices, sacrifices, art in cave walls, and musical instruments
What 7 major developments characterize the Neolithic revolution?
agriculture, pastoralism, specialization of labor, towns or cities, governments, religions, technological innovations
Why would people turn to agriculture instead of being nomads?
agriculture provided a steady, more reliable food supply
In what way did pastoralists negatively effect their environment?
They sometimes allowed their animals to overgraze an area that would then erode
How did farming cause the specialization of labor?
the surplus of food created by farming left some workers free to focus on things besides growing food
What is the impact of specialization of labor?
It created a merchant class that traded, that led to taxation and the need for recording transactions led to writing
How did agriculture encourage the growth of towns and villages?
It created a boost in population and permanent settlements
Why was government created?
To help coordinate large groups of people accomplish their jobs and to distribute and supervise how products were used
What were the purpose of priests/priestesses?
to preform religious ceremonies to persuade the spirits of nature
What are examples of technological innovations?
Clay pots, the plow, the wheel and axle, textiles, metallurgy
How did culture change between 1,000,000 years ago and 10,000 years ago?
People adapted to new environments and developed new tools
The best explanation 10,000 years ago and 7,000 is development of what?
better means of food production
Most historians agree with what theory explaining human migration?
Humanity spread while all the continents were still connected
Which of the following would be the most important factor determining a favorable location in the evolution of a village into a city?
A predictable supply of drinking water
A major difference between a village and a city in the Neolithic times was what?
Cities possessed greater specialization of labor
A pestle made for smashing taro in Papua, New Guinea and believed to be 8,000 years old indicted that people in the region had what?
Independently gained the ability to smelt iron
The creation of the pestle indicates that the people who had it had what form of technology?
The control of fire
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