Biology Final Study Guide
Terms in this set (117)
involves a restricted situation with a small number of testable variables; can be rejected based on a single experiment
broad explanations based on many experiments; explains why something happens with support by a large body of scientific evidence accepted to be true by many scientists
a descriptive statement or equation that reliably predicts events under certain conditions
the most recent ancestral form or species from which two different species evolved
The preserved remains or traces of an organism that lived in the past
remnant of a structure that may have had an important function in a species' ancestors, but has no clear function in the modern species. (appendix/tail bone)
An organism in the earliest stage of development
similar structures that related species have inherited from a common ancestor
Branching diagrams that depict hypotheses about evolutionary relationships.
A group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring.
capable of reproducing
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits. "survival of the fittest"
Change over time
Any difference between individuals of the same species.
Passing of traits from parents to offspring
inherited characteristic that increases an organism's chance of survival
Formation of new species
isolation between populations due to physical barriers
isolation between populations due to differences in courtship or mating behavior
An organism that can make its own food.
An organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms; also called a heterotroph
An organism that breaks down wastes and dead organisms
A consumer that eats only plants.
A consumer that eats only animals.
An animal that eats both plants and animals
An organism that makes its own food; also called a producer
organism that obtains energy from the foods it consumes; also called a consumer
An organism that eats producers
An organism that eats primary consumers
An organism that eats secondary consumers
series of steps in an ecosystem in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
network of complex interactions formed by the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem
Each step in a food chain or food web
10% Energy Rule
10 percent moves up each trophic level while 90% is lost due to heat/energy
A diagram that shows the amount of energy that moves from one feeding level to another in a food web
Natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases
a gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth's atmosphere generally attributed to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and other pollutants.
Change in the statistical properties of the climate system when considered over periods of decades
a natural fuel such as coal or gas, formed in the geological past from the remains of living organisms.
Gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, water vapor, and ozone in the atmosphere which are involved in the greenhouse effect.
Alternative/Renewable Energy Sources
A resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by humans.
measure of the impact human activities have on the environment in terms of the amount of greenhouse gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide
Sea Level Rising
Sign of global warming, ocean levels intrude on coastal areas causing large amounts of flooding
The sea level rise in the past 15,000 years is due to ____.
A type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. Examples of organisms with these cells are protists, plants, fungi, and animals.
A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; found only in the domains Bacteria and Archaea.
eukaryotic cells present in animals. Do not have cell walls or chloroplasts
eukaryotic cells present in green plants, photosynthetic eukaryotes. Their distinctive features include primary cell walls, a large vacuole, and chloroplasts.
A tiny, nonliving particle that invades and then reproduces inside a living cell.
A rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell
controls entry into and out of cell
Control center of the cell
A system of membranes that is found in a cell's cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids.
That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes.
That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that is free of ribosomes.
A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell
A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
some substances can pass directly through the cell membrane by passive or active transport
A tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell
smallest unit of life
A group of similar cells that perform the same function.
A collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body
group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
An individual living thing
a natural gas exhaled by animals and plants, and absorbed by plants during the process of photosynthesis. Vital to life, it also occurs naturally in seawater, glaciers, ice caps, rivers, groundwater, and lakes.
A gas and one of the chemical elements, that forms a large part of the air on earth and is needed to keep most living things alive.
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. When its level is low, we feel hunger.
Essential structural component of living cells and a source of energy in many organisms.
A green pigment found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
the ability to do work
the making and breaking of chemical bonds, leading to changes in the composition of matter
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work
Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production
the combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials
A substance produced in a chemical reaction
a substance or molecule that participates in a chemical reaction
The chemicals that make up the rungs of the DNA ladder. A-T and C-G match.
The base that pairs with Thymine in DNA
the nucleotide that hydrogen bonds with the nucleotide adenine in DNA.
The base that pairs with Cytosine in DNA
The base that pairs with Guanine with DNA
a pair of complementary bases in a double-stranded nucleic acid molecule, consisting of a purine in one strand linked by hydrogen bonds to a pyrimidine in the other. Cytosine always pairs with guanine, and adenine with thymine (in DNA) or uracil (in RNA).
sugar in DNA
the sides of a DNA molecule that consist of alternating sugar and phosphate molecules
A building block of DNA, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
Shape of DNA
An organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
Building blocks of protein
single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose
a nitrogen-containing base found in RNA (but not in DNA) and derived from pyrimidine; bonds with adenine
sugar in RNA
synthesis of an RNA molecule (mRNA) from a DNA template
messenger RNA; type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome
Process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced
transfer RNA; type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome
ribosomal RNA; type of RNA that makes up part of the ribosome
three-nucleotide sequence (3 bases) on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid
Device used to determine the amino acid coded for by a codon
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
A characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes.
Different forms of a gene
Describes a trait that covers over, or dominates, another form of that trait
Describes a trait that is covered over, or dominated, by another form of that trait and seems to disappear.
An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.
An organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations.
Both alleles (factors) for a trait are the same and dominant (AA)
Both alleles (factors) for a trait are the same and recessive (aa)
An organism that has two different alleles for a trait (Aa)
A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
determined by genes found on one of the first 22 pairs of chromosomes (not the 23rd sex-determining chromosome)
a trait that is determined by a gene found on one of the sex chromosomes, such as the X chromosome or the Y chromosome in humans (23rd Chromosome)