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An 8-year-old child is hit by a motor vehicle in the school parking lot. The school nurse notes that the child is responding to verbal stimulation but is not moving his extremities when requested. What is the first action the nurse should take?
Have someone notify the emergency medical services (EMS) system.
The child was involved in a motor vehicle collision and at this time is not able to move his extremities. The child needs immediate attention at a hospital for assessment of the possibility of a spinal cord injury. Because the child cannot move his extremities, the child should not be moved until his cervical and vertebral spines are stabilized. The EMS team can appropriately stabilize the spinal column for transport. Although it is important to notify the parents, the EMS system should be activated and transport arranged for serious injuries. The only indication to move the child is to prevent further trauma.
The nurse stops to assist an adolescent who has experienced severe trauma when hit by a motorcycle. The emergency medical system (EMS) has been activated. The first person who provided assistance applied a tourniquet to the child's leg because of arterial bleeding. What should the nurse do related to the tourniquet?
Leave the tourniquet in place.
A tourniquet is applied only as a last resort, and then it is left in place and not loosened until definitive treatment is available. After the tourniquet is applied, skin and tissue necrosis occur below the site. Loosening or removing the tourniquet allows toxins from the tissue necrosis to be released into the circulation. This can induce systemic, deadly tourniquet shock.
What is a physiologic effect of immobilization on children?
Circulatory stasis can lead to thrombus and embolus formation.
The physiologic effects of immobilization, as a result of decreased muscle contraction, include venous stasis. This can lead to pulmonary emboli or thrombi. The metabolic rate decreases with immobilization. With the loss of muscle contraction, there is a decreased venous return to the heart. Calcium leaves the bone during immobilization, leading to bone demineralization and increasing the calcium ion concentration in the blood.
What condition can result from the bone demineralization associated with immobility?
Bone demineralization leads to a negative calcium balance, osteoporosis, pathologic fractures, extraosseous bone formation, and renal calculi. Pooling of blood is a result of the cardiovascular effects of immobilization. Urinary retention is secondary to the effect of immobilization on the urinary tract. Susceptibility to infection can result from the effects of immobilization on the respiratory and renal systems.
What measure is important in managing hypercalcemia in a child who is immobilized?
Provide adequate hydration
Vigorous hydration is indicated to prevent problems with hypercalcemia. Suggested intake for an adolescent is 3000 to 4000 ml/day of fluids. Diuretics are used to promote the removal of calcium. Changing position is important for skin and respiratory concerns. Calcium in the diet is restricted when possible. A high-protein diet served as frequent snacks with favored foods is recommended. A high-calorie diet without adequate protein will not promote healing.
The nurse is caring for an immobilized preschool child. What intervention is helpful during this period of immobilization?
Take the child for a "walk" by wagon outside the room
Transporting the child outside of the room by stretcher, wheelchair, or wagon increases environmental stimuli and provides social contact. Street clothes are preferred for hospitalized children. This decreases the sense of illness and disability. The child needs appropriate limits for both adherence to the medical regimen and developmental concerns. It is not necessary to keep the child away from other immobilized children.
The nurse is teaching parents the proper use of a hip-knee-ankle-foot orthosis (HKAFO) for their 4-year-old child. The parents demonstrate basic essential knowledge by making what statement?
"Condition of the skin in contact with the brace should be checked every 4 hours."
This type of brace has several contact points with the child's skin. To minimize the risk of skin breakdown and facilitate use of the brace, vigilant skin monitoring is necessary. Alcohol should not be used on the skin. It is drying. Parents are capable of checking and tightening the screws when necessary. If a burning sensation occurs, the brace should be removed. If several complaints of burning occur, the orthotist should be contacted.
Immobilization causes what effect on metabolism?
Decreased metabolic rate
Immobilization causes a decreased metabolic rate with slowing of all systems and a decreased food intake. Immobilization leads to hypercalcemia and a negative nitrogen balance secondary to muscle atrophy. Decreased production of stress hormones occurs with decreased physical and emotional coping capacity.
What finding is characteristic of fractures in children?
Rapidity of healing is inversely related to the child's age.
Healing is more rapid in children. The younger the child, the more rapid the healing process. Nonunion of bone fragments is uncommon except in severe injuries. The epiphyseal plate is the weakest point of long bones and a frequent site of injury during trauma. Children's bones are more pliable and porous than those of adults. This allows them to bend, buckle, and break. The greater porosity increases the flexibility of the bone and dissipates and absorbs a significant amount of the force on impact. The adult periosteum is thinner, is weaker, and has less osteogenic potential than that of a child.
A 14-year-old is admitted to the emergency department with a fracture of the right humerus epiphyseal plate through the joint surface. What information does the nurse know regarding this type of fracture?
This type of fracture requires different management to prevent bone growth complications.
This type of fracture (Salter type III) can cause problems with growth in the affected limb. Early and complete assessment is essential to prevent angular deformities and longitudinal growth problems. The difficulty for the child does not depend on the location at the epiphyseal plate. Any fracture of the dominant arm presents obstacles for the individual. Healing is usually rapid in the epiphyseal plate area. Complete immobilization is not necessary. Often these injuries are surgically repaired with open reduction and internal fixation.
Parents bring a 7-year-old child to the clinic for evaluation of an injured wrist after a bicycle accident. The parents and child are upset, and the child will not allow an examination of the injured arm. What priority nursing intervention should occur at this time?
Calmly ask the child to point to where the pain is worst and to wiggle fingers.
Initially, assessment is the priority. Because the child is alert but upset, the nurse should work to gain the child's trust. Initial data are gained by observing the child's ability to move the fingers and to point to the pain. Other important observations at this time are pallor and paresthesia. The child needs to be sent for radiography, but initial assessment data need to be obtained. Sending the child for radiography will increase the child's anxiety, making the examination difficult. It is inappropriate to ask parents to restrain their child. These parents are upset about the injury. If restraint is indicated, the nurse should obtain assistance from other personnel.
A 7-year-old child has just had a cast applied for a fractured arm with the wrist and elbow immobilized. What information should be included in the home care instructions?
Elevate casted arm when both upright and resting.
The injured extremity should be kept elevated while resting and in a sling when upright. This will increase venous return. The child should not engage in strenuous activity for the first few days. Rest with elevation of the extremity is encouraged. Joints above and below the cast on the affected extremity should be moved. Swelling of the fingers may indicate neurovascular damage and should be reported immediately. Permanent damage can occur within 6 to 8 hours.
The nurse uses the five Ps to assess ischemia in a child with a fracture. What finding is considered a late and ominous sign?
Paresthesia distal to the injury or cast is an ominous sign that requires immediate notification of the practitioner. Permanent muscle and tissue damage can occur within 6 hours. The other signs of ischemia that need to be reported are pain, pallor, pulselessness, and paralysis. Petaling is a method of placing protective or smooth edges on a cast. Posturing is not a sign of peripheral ischemia. Finding a position of comfort can be difficult with a fracture. It would not be an ominous sign unless pain was increasing or uncontrollable.
A child is upset because, when the cast is removed from her leg, the skin surface is caked with desquamated skin and sebaceous secretions. What technique should the nurse suggest to remove this material?
Soak in a bathtub
Simply soaking in the bathtub is usually sufficient for removal of the desquamated skin and sebaceous secretions. Several days may be required to eliminate the accumulation completely. The parents and child should be advised not to scrub the leg vigorously or forcibly remove this material because it may cause excoriation and bleeding. Oil or lotion, but not powder, may provide comfort for the child.
A child with a hip spica cast is being prepared for discharge. Recognizing that caring for a child at home is complex, the nurse should include what instructions for the parents' discharge teaching?
Specially designed car restraints are necessary
Standard seat belts and car seats may not be readily adapted for use by children in some casts. Specially designed car seats and restraints meet safety requirements. The child must have position changes much more frequently than every 8 hours. During feeding and play activities, the child should be moved for both physiologic and psychosocial benefit. Diapers and other strategies are necessary to maintain cleanliness. The abduction bar is never used as an aid for turning. Putting pressure on the bar may damage the integrity of the cast.
What is an appropriate nursing intervention when caring for a child in traction?
Assessing for tightness, weakness, or contractures in uninvolved joints and muscles
Traction places stress on the affected bone, joint, and muscles. The nurse must assess for tightness, weakness, or contractures developing in the uninvolved joints and muscles. The adhesive straps should be released or replaced only when absolutely necessary. Active, passive, or active with resistance exercises should be carried out for the unaffected extremity only. Movement is expected with children. Each time the child moves, the nurse should check to ensure that proper alignment is maintained.
The nurse is caring for a hospitalized adolescent whose femur was fractured 18 hours ago. The adolescent suddenly develops chest pain and dyspnea. The nurse should suspect what complication?
Fat emboli are of greatest concern in individuals with fractures of the long bones. Fat droplets from the marrow are transferred to the general circulation, where they are transported to the lung or brain. This type of embolism usually occurs within the second 12 hours after the injury. Sepsis would manifest with fever and lethargy. Osteomyelitis usually is seen with pain at the site of infection and fever. A child with an acute respiratory tract infection would have nasal congestion, not chest pain.
What statement is correct regarding sports injuries during adolescence?
Adolescents may not possess insight and judgment to recognize when a sports activity is beyond their capabilities.
Injuries occur when the adolescent's body is not suited to the sport or when he or she lacks the insight and judgment to recognize that an activity exceeds his or her physical abilities. More injuries occur when an adolescent's muscles and body systems (respiratory and cardiovascular) are not conditioned to endure physical stress. Injuries do not occur from fatigue but rather from overuse. All sports have the potential for injury to the participant, whether the youngster engages in serious competition or in sports for recreation. More injuries occur during recreational sports than during organized athletic competition.
The middle school nurse is speaking to parents about prevention of injuries as a goal of the physical education program. How should the goal be achieved?
Education of adults to recognize signs that indicate a risk for injury
Adults close to sports activities need to be aware of the early warning signs of fatigue, dehydration, and risk for injury. School policy should require mandatory use of protective equipment. Proper sports medicine therapy does not support "working through" overuse injuries. Too many students involved in different activities create distractions, which contribute to the child losing focus. This is a contributing factor to injury.
A young girl has just injured her ankle at school. In addition to notifying the child's parents, what is the most appropriate, immediate action by the school nurse?
Soft tissue injuries should be iced immediately. In addition to ice, the extremity should be rested, be elevated, and have compression applied. The nurse observes for the edema while placing a cold pack. The applying of ice can reduce the severity of the injury. Maintaining the ankle at a position elevated above the heart is important. The nurse helps the child be comfortable with this requirement. The nurse obtains parental permission for administration of acetaminophen or aspirin after ice and rest are assured.
A student athlete was injured during a basketball game. The nurse observes significant swelling. The player states he thought he "heard a pop," that the pain is "pretty bad," and that the ankle feels "as if it is coming apart." Based on this description, the nurse suspects what injury?
Sprains account for approximately 75% of all ankle injuries in children. A sprain results when the trauma is so severe that a ligament is either stretched or partially or completely torn by the force created as a joint is twisted or wrenched. Joint laxity is the most valid indicator of the severity of a sprain. A fracture involves the cross-section of the bone. Dislocations occur when the force of stress on the ligaments disrupts the normal positioning of the bone ends. Stress fractures result from repeated muscular contraction and are seen most often in sports involving repetitive weight bearing such as running, gymnastics, and basketball.
An adolescent comes to the school nurse after experiencing shin splints during a track meet. What reassurance should the nurse offer?
Ice, rest, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) usually relieve pain.
Shin splints result when the ligaments tear away from the tibial shaft and cause pain. Actions that have an antiinflammatory effect are indicated for shin splints. Ice, rest, and NSAIDs are the usual treatment. Shin splints are rarely serious, but they are not expected, and preventive measures are taken. Rest is important to heal the shin splints. Continuing to place stress on the tibia can lead to further damage.
The nurse at a summer camp recognizes the signs of heatstroke in an adolescent girl. Her temperature is 40° C (104° F). She is slightly confused but able to drink water. Nursing care while waiting for transport to the hospital should include what intervention?
Apply towels wet with cool water
Heatstroke is a failure of normal thermoregulatory mechanisms. The onset is rapid with initial symptoms of headache, weakness, and disorientation. Immediate care is relocation to a cool environment, removal of clothing, and applying of cool water (wet towels or immersion). Antipyretics are not used because they are metabolized by the liver, which is already not functioning. Salt tablets are not indicated and may be harmful by increasing dehydration. Rubbing alcohol is not used.
What is the recommended drink for athletes during practice and competition?
Cold water for gastrointestinal tract rapid absorption
Water is recommended for most athletes, who should drink 4 to 8 oz every 15 to 20 minutes. Cold water facilitates rapid gastric emptying and intestinal absorption. Most carbohydrate sports drinks have 6% to 8% carbohydrate, which can cause gastrointestinal upset. Carbonated beverages are discouraged. There is no evidence that these drinks enhance function.
The nurse is teaching the girls' varsity sports teams about the "female athlete triad." What is essential information to include?
Pregnancy can occur in the absence of menstruation.
Sexually active teenagers, regardless of menstrual status, need to consider contraceptive precautions. Increased calcium (1500 mg) is recommended for amenorrheic athletes. The decreased estrogen in girls with the female athlete triad, coupled with potentially inadequate diet, leads to osteoporosis. Diets high in protein and calories are necessary to avoid potentially long-term consequences of intensive, prolonged exercise programs in pubertal girls.
Parents are considering treatment options for their 5-year-old child with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. Both surgical and conservative therapies are appropriate. They are able to verbalize the differences between the therapies when they make what statement?
"Surgical correction requires a 3- to 4-month recovery period."
Surgical correction involves additional risks of anesthesia, infection, and possibly blood transfusion. The recovery period is only 3 to 4 months rather than the 2 to 4 years of conservative therapies. The use of non-weight-bearing appliances and surgical intervention does not require prolonged bed rest. Conservative therapy is indicated for 2 to 4 years. The child is encouraged to attend school and engage in activities that can be adapted to therapeutic appliances.
A 4-year-old child is placed in Buck extension traction for Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. He is crying with pain as the nurse assesses the skin of his right foot and sees that it is pale with an absence of pulse. What should the nurse do first?
Notify the practitioner of the changes noted.
The absence of a pulse and change in color of the foot must be reported immediately for evaluation by the practitioner. This is an emergency condition. Pain medication should be given after the practitioner is notified. The findings should be documented with ongoing assessment.
What term is used to describe an abnormally increased convex angulation in the curvature of the thoracic spine?
Kyphosis is an abnormally increased convex angulation in the curvature of the thoracic spine. Scoliosis is a complex spinal deformity usually involving lateral curvature, spinal rotation causing rib asymmetry, and thoracic hypokyphosis. Lordosis is an accentuation of the cervical or lumbar curvature beyond physiologic limits. Ankylosis is the immobility of a joint.
When does idiopathic scoliosis become most noticeable?
During the preadolescent growth spurt
Idiopathic scoliosis is most noticeable during the preadolescent growth spurt. It is seldom apparent before age 10 years.
A preadolescent has been diagnosed with scoliosis. The planned therapy is the use of a thoracolumbosacral orthotic. The preadolescent asks how long she will have to wear the brace. What is the appropriate response by the nurse?
"Until your vertebral column has reached skeletal maturity."
Bracing can halt or slow the progress of most curvatures. They must be used continuously until the child reaches skeletal maturity. Telling the child "for as long as you have been told" does not answer the child's question and does not promote involvement in care. Six months is unrealistic because skeletal maturity is not reached until adolescence. When skeletal growth is complete, bracing is no longer effective.
A 17-year-old patient is returning to the surgical unit after Luque instrumentation for scoliosis repair. In addition to the usual postoperative care, what additional intervention will be needed?
Position changes are made by log rolling.
After scoliosis repair using a Luque procedure, the adolescent is turned by log rolling to prevent damage to the fusion and instrumentation. The patient is kept flat in bed for the first 12 hours and is not ambulatory until the second or third postoperative day. A urinary catheter is placed. The head of the bed is not elevated until the second postoperative day. Range of motion exercises are begun on the second postoperative day.
What is the primary method of treating osteomyelitis?
IV antibiotic therapy
Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone, most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus infection. The treatment of choice is antibiotics. Joint replacement, bracing and casting, and long-term corticosteroid therapy are not indicated for infectious processes.
What nursing intervention is most appropriate when caring for the child with osteomyelitis?
Move and turn the child carefully and gently to minimize pain.
During the acute phase, any movement of the affected limb causes discomfort to the child. Careful positioning with the affected limb supported is necessary. Weight bearing is not permitted until healing is well under way to avoid pathologic fractures. Intravenous antibiotics are used initially. Food is not necessary with parenteral therapy. Active range of motion would be painful for the child.
What statement is true concerning osteogenesis imperfecta (OI)?
It is an inherited disorder
OI is a heterogeneous, autosomal dominant disorder characterized by fractures and bone deformity. Treatment is primarily supportive. Several investigational therapies are being evaluated. The primary goal of therapy is rehabilitation. Lightweight braces and splints help support limbs, prevent fractures, and aid in ambulation. The disease is present at birth. Prognosis is affected by the type of OI.
What is a major goal for the therapeutic management of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)?
Control pain and preserve joint function
The goals of therapy are to control pain, preserve joint range of motion and function, minimize the effects of inflammation, and promote normal growth and development. There is no cure for JIA at this time. Skin breakdown is not an issue for most children with JIA. Symptom relief and reduction in discomfort are important. When the joints are damaged, it is often irreversible.
A child with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is started on a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID). What nursing consideration should be included?
Check for abdominal pain and bloody stools
NSAIDs are the first-line drugs used in JIA. Potential side effects include gastrointestinal (GI), renal, and hepatic side effects. The child is at risk for GI bleeding and elevated blood pressure. The heart rate is not affected by this drug class. NSAIDs should be given with meals to minimize gastrointestinal problems. The antiinflammatory response usually takes 3 weeks before effectiveness can be evaluated.
What is an important nursing consideration when caring for a child with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)?
Teach the child and family correct administration of medications.
The management of JIA is primarily pharmacologic. The family should be instructed regarding administration of medications and the value of a regular schedule of administration to maintain a satisfactory blood level in the body. They need to know that nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs should not be given on an empty stomach and to be alert for signs of toxicity. Warm, moist heat is best for relieving stiffness and pain. Acetaminophen does not have antiinflammatory effects. Range of motion exercises should not be done during periods of inflammation.
What needs to be included as essential teaching for adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)?
Protection from sun and fluorescent lights to minimize rash
The photosensitive rash is a major concern for individuals with SLE. Adolescents who spend time outdoors need to use sunscreens with a high SPF, hats, and clothing. Uncovered fluorescent lights can also cause a photosensitivity reaction. The diet should be sufficient in calories and nutrients for growth and development. The use of steroids can cause increased hunger, resulting in weight gain. This can present additional emotional issues for the adolescent. Normal functions should be maximized. The individual with SLE is encouraged to attend school and participate in peer activities. A balance of rest and exercise is important; excessive exercise is avoided.
The nurse is teaching the parent of a 4-year-old child with a cast on the arm about care at home. What statement by the parent indicates a correct understanding of the teaching?
"I will use an ice pack to relieve the itching."
Teaching the parent to use an ice pack to relieve the itching is an important aspect when planning discharge for a child with a cast. The affected limb should not be allowed to hang in a dependent position for more than 30 minutes. The affected arm should be kept elevated as much as possible. If there is swelling or redness of the fingers, the parent should notify the health care provider.
The nurse is teaching the parents of a 1-month-old infant with developmental dysplasia of the hip about preventing skin breakdown under the Pavlik harness. What statement by the parent would indicate a correct understanding of the teaching?
"I should gently massage the skin under the straps once a day to stimulate circulation."
To prevent skin breakdown with an infant who has developmental dysplasia of the hip and is in a Pavlik harness, the parent should gently massage the skin under the straps once a day to stimulate circulation. The parent should not apply lotions or powder because this could irritate the skin. The parent should not remove the harness, except during a bath, and should place the diaper under the straps.
A neonate is born with mild clubfeet. When the parents ask the nurse how this will be corrected, what should the nurse explain?
Frequent, serial casting is tried first
Serial casting is begun shortly after birth, before discharge from the nursery. Successive casts allow for gradual stretching of skin and tight structures on the medial side of the foot. Manipulation and casting of the leg are repeated frequently (every week) to accommodate the rapid growth of early infancy. Serial casting is the preferred treatment. Surgical intervention is done only if serial casting is not successful. Children do not improve without intervention.
An infant is born with one lower limb deficiency. When is the optimum time for the child to be fitted with a functional prosthetic device?
When the infant is developmentally ready to stand up
An infant should be fitted with a functional prosthetic leg when the infant is developmentally ready to pull to a standing position. When the infant begins limb exploration, a soft prosthesis can be used. The child should begin using the prosthesis as part of his or her normal development. This will match the infant's motor readiness.
The nurse knows that parents need further teaching with regard to the treatment of congenital clubfoot when they state what?
"We're happy this is the only cast our baby will need."
The common approach to clubfoot management and treatment is the Ponseti method. Serial casting is begun shortly after birth. Weekly gentle manipulation and stretching of the foot along with placement of serial long-leg casts allow for gradual repositioning of the foot. The extremity or extremities are casted until maximum correction is achieved, usually within 6 to 10 weeks. If parents state that this is the only cast the infant will need, they need further teaching.
A child has just returned from surgery for repair of a fractured femur. The child has a long-leg cast on. The toes on the leg with the cast are edematous, but they have color, sensitivity, and movement. What action should the nurse take?
Elevate the foot and leg on pillows
During the first few hours after a cast is applied, the chief concern is that the extremity may continue to swell to the extent that the cast becomes a tourniquet, shutting off circulation and producing neurovascular complications (compartment syndrome). One measure to reduce the likelihood of this problem is to elevate the body part and thereby increase venous return. The health care provider does not need to be notified because edema is expected and warm moist packs will not decrease the edema. The child should move the toes, but that will not help reduce the edema.
After spinal fusion surgery the nurse should check for signs of what?
Impaired color, sensitivity, and movement to the lower extremities
In addition to the usual postoperative assessments of wound, circulation, and vital signs, the neurologic status of the patient's extremities requires special attention. Prompt recognition of any neurologic impairment is imperative because delayed paralysis may develop that requires surgical intervention.
What should the nurse plan for an immobilized child in cervical traction to prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT)?
Assist the child to dorsiflex the feet and rotate the ankles
For a child who is immobilized, circulatory stasis and DVT development are prevented by instructing patients to change positions frequently, dorsiflex their feet and rotate the ankles, sit in a bedside chair periodically, or ambulate several times daily. Elevating the legs or placing a foot cradle on the bed will not prevent DVTs. A pillow under the knee would impair circulation, not improve it.
The nurse is teaching a child with a cast about cast removal. What should the nurse teach the child about cast removal?
"You will feel a tickly sensation as the cast is removed."
Cutting the cast to remove it or to relieve tightness is frequently a frightening experience for children. They fear the sound of the cast cutter and are terrified that their flesh, as well as the cast, will be cut. Because it works by vibration, a cast cutter cuts only the hard surface of the cast. The oscillating blade vibrates back and forth very rapidly and will not cut when placed lightly on the skin. Children have described it as producing a "tickly" sensation.
A 3-year-old child has a femoral shaft fracture. The nurse recognizes that the approximate healing time for this child is how long?
The approximate healing times for a femoral shaft fracture are as follows: neonatal period, 2 to 3 weeks; early childhood, 4 weeks; later childhood, 6 to 8 weeks; and adolescence, 8 to 12 weeks.
The nurse is teaching infant care to parents with an infant who has been diagnosed with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). What should the nurse include in the teaching session?
"Lift the infant by the buttocks, not the ankles, when changing diapers."
Infants and children with this disorder require careful handling to prevent fractures. They must be supported when they are being turned, positioned, moved, and held. Even changing a diaper may cause a fracture in severely affected infants. These children should never be held by the ankles when being diapered but should be gently lifted by the buttocks or supported with pillows. Bisphosphonate and physical therapy are beneficial for OI. Lightweight braces will be used when the child starts to ambulate.
In teaching a 16-year-old adolescent who was recently diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), what statements should the nurse include?
"You should use a moisturizer with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 30."
"You should avoid pregnancy because this can cause a flare-up."
"You may need to modify your daily recreational activities."
Teaching for an adolescent with SLE should foster adaptation and self-advocacy and include using a moisturizer with an SPF of 30, avoiding pregnancy because it can produce a flare-up, and modifying recreational activities but continuing with daily exercise as an essential part of the treatment plan. The adolescent should continue to receive immunizations as scheduled, should expect to gain weight while on steroid therapy, and would not have a specialized diet.
The nurse is caring for a child immobilized because of Russel traction. What interventions should the nurse implement to prevent renal calculi?
Ensure adequate fluids
Encourage the patient to drink cranberry juice
To prevent renal calculi in a child who is immobilized, a nurse should monitor output; ensure adequate fluids; and encourage cranberry juice, which acidifies urine. Apple juice and milk alkalize the urine, so they should not be encouraged.
The nurse is assisting with application of a synthetic cast on a child with a fractured humerus. What are the advantages of a synthetic cast over a plaster of Paris cast?
Drying time is faster
Permits regular clothing to be worn
Can be cleaned with small amount of soap and water
The advantages of synthetic casts over plaster of Paris casts are that they are less bulky, dry faster, permit regular clothes to be worn, and can be cleaned. Plaster of Paris casts mold readily to a body part, but synthetic casts do not mold easily to body parts.
A child has had a short-arm synthetic cast applied. What should the nurse teach to the child and parents about cast care?
Elevate the arm when resting
Observe the fingers for any evidence of discoloration
Do not allow the child to put anything inside the cast
Examine the skin at the cast edges for any breakdown
Cast care involves elevating the arm, observing the fingers for evidence of discoloration, not allowing the child to put anything inside the cast, and examining the skin at the edges of the cast for any breakdown. Ice, not heat, should be applied to relieve itching.
The nurse is conducting preoperative teaching to parents and their child about an external fixation device. What should the nurse include in the teaching session?
Modifications in activity
Observing pin sites for infection
The device is attached surgically by securing a series of external full or half rings to the bone with wires. Children and parents should be instructed in pin care, including observation for infection and loosening of pins. Partial weight bearing is allowed, and the child needs to learn to walk with crutches. Alterations in activity include modifications at school and in physical education. Full weight bearing is not allowed until the distraction is completed and bone consolidation has occurred.
The nurse is caring for a 14-year-old child with systemic lupus erythematous (SLE). What clinical manifestations should the nurse expect to observe?
Clinical manifestations of SLE include arthralgia, abdominal pain, and glomerulonephritis. Weight loss, not gain, and anemia, not polycythemia, are manifestations of SLE.
The nurse is caring for a 14-year-old child with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). What clinical manifestations should the nurse expect to observe?
Soft tissue contractors
Swelling in multiple joints
Morning stiffness of the joints
Loss of motion in the affected joints
Whether single or multiple joints are involved, stiffness, swelling, and loss of motion develop in the affected joints in JIA. The swelling results from soft tissue edema, joint effusion, and synovial thickening. The affected joints may be warm and tender to the touch, but it is not uncommon for pain not to be reported. The limited motion early in the disease is a result of muscle spasm and joint inflammation; later it is caused by ankylosis or soft tissue contracture. Morning stiffness of the joint(s) is characteristic and present on arising in the morning or after inactivity. Erythema is not typical, and a warm, painful, red joint is always suspect for infection.
The school nurse recognizes that the adverse effects of performance-enhancing substances can include what?
Changes in libido
Mood changes have been observed as adverse effects of using performance-enhancing substances, including aggressiveness, changes in libido, depression, anxiety, and psychosis. Fluid retention, not dehydration, and hypertension, not hypotension, are adverse effects of performance-enhancing substances.
Crosswise at right angles to the long axis of the bone
Slanting but straight between a horizontal and a perpendicular direction
Slanting and circular, twisting around the bone shaft
Small fragments of bone are broken from the fractured shaft and lie in the surrounding tissue
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