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Bio: CH. 43
Terms in this set (69)
organisms and agents that cause disease
examples of pathogens (4)
bacteria, viruses, fungi, single-celled eukaryotes
molecules/cells of its own organism
molecules/cells of other organisms
how do cells recognize the difference between self and nonself?
how do autoimmune diseases occur?
when the immune system attacks its self
is the immune system always responding?
no - only when it is needed
innate immune system
protects against all kinds of infection in a nonspecific manner
does the innate immune system rely on prior exposure?
adaptive immune system
specific to a given pathogen; remembers past infections
what is the result of adaptive immune system memory
subsequent encounters to a pathogen generate a stronger response
did the innate or adaptive immune system evolve first?
what does the innate immune system contain
nonpathogenic microorganisms to compete with pathogens
another name for white blood cells
Where are leukocytes produced?
example of white blood cell
what do phagocytes do
engulf and destroy foreign cells
three steps of phagocytosis
binds with foreign cell, engulfs cell with PM, cell in vesicle fuses with lysosome for breakdown
who sends cytokines
what do cytokines do
recruit other immune cells to the site of injury/infection
do cytokines represent long or short distance communication
what is inflammation the joint action of (3)
local tissue, the vascular system, and innate immune system
what does histamine do
it is released to increase blood flow to the area and increases permeability of the blood vessel wall
what does the increased permeability cause
fluid leaks out of the blood vessel and carries WBC
What does the complement system consist of
25 types of proteins that circulate through the blood in an inactive form
what activates these proteins?
binding to molecules on invading microorganisms or antibodies
3 effects of the complement system
MAC, opsonization, formation of activated proteins
protein changes shape when recognizes bacteria and inserts itself into the bacterial membrane
stick protein tags on bacteria
formation of activated proteins
attract other components of the immune system
what two qualities does the adaptive immune system have
specificity and memory
large protein on surface of B cells
what do antibodies bind to
foreign material that invades the body
what do antigens produce
Y shaped protein - 2 identical light chains, 2 identical heavy chains
what is the first step in recognizing and removing pathogens?
binding antibodies to antigens
how does specificity occur?
every individual has a large pool of B cells each with a different antibody on its surface
how many antigens can 1 antibody recognize?
1 or just a few
what does binding to an antigen cause the B cell to divide into (2)
plasma cells and memory cells
Plasma B cells
daughters of the B cell
- SECRETE antibodies that bind to the antigen and elicit an immune response
Memory B cells
contain membrane-bound antibodies with same antigen specificity as the parent cell
are memory cells short or long lived?
The process by which antigen binding generates a clone of B cells
what is antibody specificity with clonal selection
antibody specificity is achieved before any exposure to the antigen
first time the immune system combats a particular foreign substance
later interactions with same foreign substance; quicker, stronger, lasts longer
how is the large diversity of antibodies created
how is a single antibody made
separate gene segments that are brought together by recombination
genes for heavy chains have 4 different gene segments:
V (variable), D (diversity), J (joining), C (constant)
what does the assembled VDJ portion do?
encodes the variable portion
do T cells secrete antibodies
what do T cells do instead
cell-mediated immunity - recognize pathogens
what do T cells target
infected or diseased cells
what do helper T cells do
what 2 things do helper T cells do
activate B cells to secrete antibodies and cytotoxic T cells
what do cytotoxic T cells do
kill other cells
what does a mature T cell have and what does it do
has a T cell receptor (TCR) to recognize and bind antigens
does TCR recognize the antigen by itself
no - it recognizes an antigen in association with proteins that appear on the surface of mammalian cells
what encodes these proteins?
how are cytotoxic T cells activated
by binding to an antigen presented by any type of host cell
how are T cells activated
by binding to cells that phagocytosed a pathogen
what T cells are positively selected
those that recognize self MHC proteins
what T cells are negatively selected
those that react too strongly to self antigens
what 2 things cause inflammation
cytokines and histamine
how many types of antibodies does an individual B cell make
only one type
what do helper T cells release
how are T cell receptors similar to antibodies (4)
specific, binding results in cell growth and division, 1 TCR per cell, VDJ genomic rearrangement
if a cell binds a human protein, what happens?
it is killed
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