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Psychology 321 - Final Exam
Terms in this set (95)
The gene on the Y chromosome whose products trigger the differentiation of the testes.
The protein that is lacking in individuals with Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (CAIS).
This hormone defeminizes female rhesus monkey, but not female guinea pig, sexual behavior
The sex with the same sex chromosomes is called the __________________ sex.
The term for the internal perception of oneself as a man or woman, a boy or a girl.
What type of gonads will a genetically female guinea pig have whose mother was injected with enough TP to completely masculinize her daughter's genitalia?
A juvenile behavior that is masculinized in female rhesus monkeys by androgen treatment late in gestation, but not by androgen treatment early in gestation.
A protein that prevents maternal estradiol from entering the brains of fetal rats.
The name for the developmental process that eliminates female behavioral traits.
The term for hormonal effects which occur during development and which permanently alter the structure and/or function of the nervous system.
The hypothalamic nucleus in humans that is significantly larger in males than in females.
The general term for mammalian species in which birth occurs during the embryological or fetal period of development.
The reproductive duct system that degenerates unless exposed to androgens during sexual differentiation.
A juvenile behavior that male rhesus monkeys engage in more than female rhesus monkeys, regardless of social rearing condition.
The hormone that suppresses the development of the Mullerian duct system in males.
The term for primordia that are capable of developing as either male or female forms.
The general term for sexual behavior that is characterized by intromission patterns in females and lordosis in males (Consummatory is not the answer).
This brain area is larger in male than female rats and likely reflects defeminization of behavior.
Human males lacking this enzyme would have seminal vesicles, but likely would not have a well-formed scrotum.
The sex difference in this rhesus monkey behavior is hormonally activated in adulthood, but does not require hormonal organization.
These proteins increase the binding of steroids to their intracellular receptors.
The observable characteristics of an individual that may or may not be related to their genes.
The term for an individual that shows both very good masculine and feminine sexual behavior.
The part of the bipotential gonad which develops into the endocrine part of the testes.
A chemical that binds to androgen receptors and prevents androgens from functioning.
The hormone that suppresses development of the internal female reproductive system, except the gonad.
This duct system develops into the prostate, vas deferens, and seminal vesicles.
The primordial structure that produces the foreskin of the penis in males produces the ____________________ in females.
The presence of AMH suppresses the development of this reproductive duct system in males during sexual differentiation.
A chemical that prevents androgens from being aromatized to estrogens.
This primordial structure gives rise to the large labia, or labia majora, in females.
A juvenile behavior that is masculinized in female rhesus monkeys by androgen treatment early or late in gestation, but not if the androgen treatment is short (15 days).
The developmental period in which marsupial babies are born.
The juvenile behavior that is expressed more by rhesus monkey males than females, but only when they are reared with limited access to peers.
This primordial structure gives rise to the clitoris in the female.
This structure is an integral part of the penis, but is separate from the clitoris in females.
The name of the gland that produces AMH.
This sexual behavior would be homotypical behavior in male rats.
The genetic part of the Y chromosome that must be present in order for normal male development to occur.
The term for the removal of a male's foreskin.
The part of the bipotential gonad which develops into the endocrine part of the ovary.
The general term for species in which birth occurs before differentiation of the gonads.
The condition seen when genetic males lack androgen receptors (abbreviation ok).
A binding protein that binds estradiol, but not testosterone in rats prenatally and neonatally.
The sex chromosome(s) present in an individual with Turner's Syndrome.
Blocking ______________ in male rats, (a protein that increases the effectiveness of steroids binding to their intracellular receptors), reduces the size of the _________________.
The term for the sex that is determined by the sex chromosomes.
____________________ produces the foreskin and urethral raphe' in males.
The gene in XY individuals that codes for testis determining factor.
The term for the disorder in an XY individual where the testes function normally and produce T and DHT, but the penis fails to form.
The term for the conversion of testosterone to estradiol.
The name of the 5α-reduced metabolite of testosterone.
An androgen receptor blocker that when given to pregnant rhesus monkeys experimentally decreases androgen exposure in their offspring.
The term for the intrauterine period of life.
The SDN-POA is likely larger in males than in females because testosterone prevents _________________.
The term for the location of a female in the uterus relative to the other fetuses.
The term for losing one's penis from an accident or as a result of problems during circumcision.
The term for a human who has XY chromosomes, masculinized genitalia, and who is sexually attracted to women.
In birds, males are the _________________ sex.
Blocking this hormone neonatally reduces the size of the SDN-POA.
The term for when the intrauterine developmental period ends.
Unlike activational effects of hormones, organizational effects of hormones are not generally ______________.
The term for an animal where one side of the body is male and the other side is female.
The ovary differentiates from this primordial structure.
Failure of a castrated male rat to show lordosis when treated sequentially with estradiol and then progesterone is evidence that this male has been ______________________.
Administering ATD neonatally is most effective in preventing ________________________.
In female rabbits, the length of the __________________ increases with the number of male fetuses in utero.
Wallen & Lloyd (2011) found that the distance between a woman's clitoris and her urethra was __________________ in women who experienced orgasm from intercourse than it was in women who did not experience orgasm from intercourse.
The genital tubercle migrates towards OR away from [circle one] the anus during development in males.
away from the anus
The anogenital distance is ____________________ in males than females.
The term for notion, proposed by Phoenix, Goy, Gerall, and Young (1959), that androgens, or their metabolites, permanently alter the structure and function of the nervous system during specific limited developmental time periods to produce behavioral differences between males and females.
In male rats, neonatal administration of ___________________ prevents defeminization and masculinization.
In rats, mice, and hamsters, ________________ is required for, but is not sufficient for, masculinization.
__________________ reduces neuronal cellular apoptosis in the SDN-POA.
In rats, lesions of the SDN-POA reduce OR increase OR do not affect [circle one] male copulatory behavior.
do not affect
This protein binds to ERα & Erβ and increases their binding to the steroid response element (SRE), increasing DNA expression (abbreviation ok).
Men who have a lifelong deficiency in estrogen exposure due to mutations in the estrogen receptor or aromatase genes are physically normal, except that they tend to be very __________.
The sex difference in dog urination posture requires hormonal _______________ but not hormonal _______________.
In the Berenbaum and Hines (1992) study of toy preference in children, which sex did not show a significant preference for either masculine or feminine toys.
In rhesus monkeys, treatment with ____________________ early in gestation reduced masculinization of male genitals, but had no effect on mounting or rough play.
Male rhesus monkeys exposed to ___________________ late in gestation showed increased levels of mounting and rough play during their second year of life
In responses to infant separation-rejection vocalizations, rhesus monkey mothers retrieve ________________ offspring more than __________________ offspring.
In naturalistic age-graded social groups, juvenile rhesus monkey females show greater interest in __________________ than do juvenile males.
Prenatal androgen treatment masculinized female rhesus monkey infant separation-rejection vocalizations, but did not alter maternal __________________.
. The term for the genetic composition of an individual.
The term for the observable characteristics of an individual.
A(n) __________________ individual is sexually attracted to men, regardless of their own sex.
The term for an explanation for sex differences in humans that claims sex differences reflect a biological predisposition shaped through experience with the environment.
strict biological determinist
In lizards, alligators, and turtles, sex determination relies on this environmental factor.
Which sex is bisexual varies by species; in hamsters and ferrets the ______________ is bisexual, and in rats and guinea pigs the ______________ is bisexual.
This genetic anomaly results in girls having masculinized genitalia, but a female gender identity.
Women with ______________ are phenotypically _____________ and show similar patterns of brain activation to sexual stimuli as do women with two ________ chromosomes.
CAIS; female; X
John Money proposed a theory of gender ___________ at birth.
In primates _______________ of testosterone is not required for ______________ and ________________.
aromatization; defeminization; masculinization
One mechanism offered to explain sex-change in fish is that __________________ activity in the brain ________________ during sex-change, resulting in more ______________________ being produced from ________________________ leading to an increase in ________________________ (a type of behavior)
aromatase; decreases; 11-ketotestosterone; female brain; aggression
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