Social Psych EXAM 2 CH 5
Terms in this set (109)
What does SPD stand for?
stereotyping, prejudice, discrimination
What is the heart of SPD?
having a specific attitude towards a specific group of people (typically negative)
What does stigmatized mean?
Being persistently stereotyped, perceived as deviant, and devalued in society because of membership in a particular social group or because of a particular characteristic
What are the important notes of SPD?
1) any group can be the target of SPD
2) what matters is perceived membership
3) any person can SPD against any group (even their own)
What is stereotyping and which of the ABCs is it?
- Cognitive component
- beliefs and expectations about members of a particular group
- can be accurate and inaccurate
When can stereotyping be problematic?
1) stereotypes are inaccurate
2) even when relatives accurate, applying it to every member of a group can result in bad judgement
What is the key characteristic to stereotyping?
it is applied to all or most members of a group
what is illusory correlation?
an overestimate of the association b/t variable that are only slightly or not at all correlated
What is prejudice and which of the ABCs is it?
- Affective component
- hostile of negative feelings toward members of a group based solely on membership in that group
-can be conscious or non-conscious
What is discrimination and which of the ABCs is it?
- Behavioral component
- negative or harmful actions towards members of a group
How does discrimination vary by severity?
3) Overt aggression and violence
minimize contact with members of disliked group
excluding people from jobs, schools, neighborhoods
Overt aggression and violence
physically hurt or kill people of a certain group because of their membership
How does discrimination vary by type?
1) Interpersonal (1-on-1 SPD'ing)
2) Institutional- when practices and polices of formal organization result in mistreatment due to membership in a group
Why should we study SPD?
1) "Great Blending" in the world- multicultural interaction - conflict---SPD
2) SPD is a universal feature of the human conditions
What is Racism?
SPD based on race/ethnic membership
What is the evidence for the rapid decline in racism?
- 1940s 100% wanted pub trans. seg and 68% wanted school seg
- today- 0% for both
Describe the "Doll Study" and how the results are different today
- White and Af. Am. girls both chose white doll over the black doll
- Today: girls chose doll that matches their own skin
Describe the 3 African American self report studies
- 1994 Af. Am. asked if they've been excluded on campus = 53% YES
- Swin 2003 Af. Am. kept diary of SPD on campus = 1 incident/ week
- National Af Am. experienced discrimination in the past month= 50% (1997) and 50% (2016)
What did the EEOC data show?
- only 31,000-36,000 cases of work place discrimination were reported
- underestimate! people are scared to tell on someone
racism is alive and well
Racism is alive and well - Hate Crimes
increase year by year
7100 most against Af AM
Describe the data for arrests for drug offenses
- 13% of the US pop is Af. Am so the % of Af. Am. who are arrested SHOULD BE 13%
- ACTUALLY 37%
racism alive and well
On average, how much longer are blacks' sentences compared to whites'?
Describe the car dealership study
- white and black student went to buy car and did everything the same exact way (scripted)
- white man's cost =$11,300
- black man's cost= $11,800
Describe the fake resume study (Bertrand 2003)
- exact same resume
- IV: stereotypical white vs. black name
-DV call back rate
- whites call back= 1/10
- blacks call back= 1/15
Describe the anecdotal evidence of Racism
- Obama's face on a food stamp surrounded by typical black foods
- "Don't be Re-Nig" bumper sticker
- Unarmed black shootings
How many times more likely are black teens to commit a violent crime than white teens?
only 2-3x more likely
Looking at police records, how many times more likely do black teens get killed than white teens?
21x more likely
How has racism changed over the years? What is it known as now?
- social norms have dramatically shifted
- "Modern Racism"
What are the new social norms that has made racism change?
the open expression of racism has become less accepted over time
What is modern racism?
- for of SPD racism only comes out/is reveal when it's "safe" or "socially acceptable" or easy to rationalize, socially acceptable or can be explained away
In what 2 groups does racism manifest in?
Describe the non-conscious group that racism manifests in
people who want to believe they are egalitarian but who still harbor negative beliefs about certain groups
What is implicit racism?
racism that operates unconsciously and unintentionally
Describe the conscious group that racism manifests in
people who believe racism is justifiable but do not express it in obvious ways (bc of changed social norms
Describe the hiring study where 1/3 of applicants were highly qualified, poorly qualified, and moderately qualified and white or black (Dovideo and Gaetner)
- in the moderately qualified group, 76% would hire the white man and 46% would hire the black man
- argued that they didn't hire them just because they were white, but because they still had some good qualities
- argued that they didn't not hire them because they were black, but because they had bad things on their resume
- same results when done in '89 and '99
What did the survey study about white racism show?
A majority (52%) of white Americans believe that racism against whites is a bigger and more prevalent problem than racism against blacks
What is sexism?
- SPD based on gender
Is sexism declining?
Yes, but it is still alive and well
What is some evidence that sexism is still alive and well?
- Women earns 79c to the $1 a man earns
What do people claim are possible explanations and why can they be wrong?
1) Maternity leave--but men can leave too
2) Women choose lower paying jobs--men teachers or nurses still make more than women
3) Lack of negotiating skills--could be the employers fault
Why is sexism still around?
Sexism is self perpetuating
What is the social role theory?
the theory that small gender differences are magnified in perception by the contrasting social roles occupied by men and women
What is the first step to self perpetuating?
young boys and girls are perceived differently by adults because stereotypes guide perceptions
Describe the study of the adults watching a baby crying from the jack in the box (Condry and Condry)
IV: told baby is a boy vs. girl
DV: report the baby's emotion
- boy= he's surprised, anger
- girl= she's scared
What is the second step to self perpetuating process?
Because they are perceived different, boys and girls are treated differently and exposed to different messages
What did the Barbie pull string say and what is this doing?
"Math is hard" is exposing girls to this message
What is the third step to self perpetuating process?
These gender stereotypic messages are internalized and incorporated into self-concept and other-concept
Describe the study where the 2 yr old is showed pictures of men and women going gender typical and atypical tasks (serbin)
They generated a surprise! reaction (gaze duration) at the atypical pictures
What is the fourth step to self perpetuating process?
As they reach adulthood, stereotypes become entrenched and drive perceptions of self and others
What are the 2 components of Ambivalent -Modern (mixed/contradictory feelings) Sexism?
1) benevolent sexism
2) hostile sexism
What is benevolent sexism?
women are "better" than men, but are weaker/fragile and require protection (paternalistic attitude)
What is hostile sexism?
- negative/resentful attitude towards women, especially those who violate gender stereotypes
How are benevolent and hostile sexism correlated?
- they are highly correlated
- negatively correlative with women's access to political and economic power
What does it mean to be objectified?
someone is viewed as or treated more as mere bodies or objects and less as fully functioning human beings
Give an example of a double standard for women
They are seen as more competent if they present themselves with stereotypically masculine rather than feminine traits, yet when they do this, they are also perceived as less socially skilled and attractive
What happens when men and women are in a job that is atypical for their gender?
men and women were judged more harshly for a mistake made on a job traditionally held by the other sex than for the same kind of mistake on a job in which their gender was the majority
What are the causes or sources of SPD?
1) Social Cognitive Processes
2) Social Identity Theory
3) Social Learning
4) Realistic Conflict Theory
What is social cognitive processes?
refers to how our brain processes social information
What are the 2 ways our brain processes social information?
a) social categorization
b) identify individuals as belonging to an in-group or out-group
What is social categorization?
- classification of persons into groups on the basis of common attributes
- can be adaptive
- we are "pre-wired" to do this
What is an in-group and an out-group?
in group= group to which the perceiver belongs
out group= group to which the perceiver doesn't belong
What are the consequences of putting people in in-groups and out-groups?
1) Out-group homogeneity bias
2) In-group bias
What is Out-group homogeneity bias?
- perceive out-group members as being overly similar than they actually are
(Ex: thinking DG is diverse, but all Thetas are smart and all Aphis are pretty)
- contributes and promotes stereotypes!!!!
What is in-group bias?
- we tend to favor members of in-group
- contributes to prejudice and discrimination!!!!!
What is the Social Identity Theory?
people favor in-groups over out-groups in order to enhance there self esteem
What is the core motive of the Social Identity Theory?
positivity strivings!! we want to feel good about ourselves!!
2 things to view self positivity
1) Personal Achievement
2) Belong to/associate with high status group
What happens to the opinions of in-groups in individualistic and collectivist cultures?
when participants' self-esteem was threatened, those with individualistic self-concepts showed more ingroup favoritism, whereas those with collectivistic self-concepts did not
What can an individual do to maintain or improve status of in-group?
1) Work to improve/support status of in-group
2) Work to undermine/derogate out-group-->SPD
What is social dominance orientation?
the desire to see one's in-group as dominant over other groups and a willingness to adopt cultural values that facilitate oppression over other groups
What is the system justification theory?
A theory that proposes that people are motivated to defend and justify the existing social, political, and economic conditions
What is stereotype content model?
a model proposing that the relative status and competition between groups influence group stereotypes along the dimensions of competence and warmth
Implications of Social Identity Theory
1) people should be especially likely to SPD against an out-group when they are feeling THREATENED
2) expressing SPD against an out-group should INCREASE self-esteem
Describe the study about hiring jewish and non jewish people after being told they were told they had either high or low IQs (Fein and Spencer)
-subs people who weren't jewish
-assess self esteem
-evaluate job candiate
-IV 1- tested highly vs tested poorly
IV 2- candiate is jewish vs not jewish
-Dv rating of candiate
-equal ratings for non jewish
-Higher ratings for High IQ jewish
- shows that they discriminated against an out-group because they were feeling threatened (the more poorly the candidate is rated, the bigger the increase in self esteem)
What is one of the biggest sources of SPD?
learning from others- SPD passed down
What is the Realistic Conflict Theory?
group competing for scarce resources often produces conflict b/t the groups-->SPD
Describe the "Robbers Cave Study" about the summer camp for boys (Sherif)
- 2 separate camps- 11 yr olds
- 1st week- in-group bonding
- 2nd week- compete for scarce resources
-----increased tension and conflict
------all out warfare at end of week
- 3rd week- war!--> superordinate goal
- 4th week- peace!
mutual goal that can only be achieved by working together
Wat is relatie deprivation?
feeling of discontent aroused by the belief that one fares poorly compared with others
How do you reduce SPD?
1) Education and contact
2) Interacting with out-group members
3) Contact hypothesis
Does education actually help reduce SPD? Why?
No because people see and believe what they wanna
Does interacting with the out-group actually help reduce SPD?
rarely and inconsistency
Why does interacting with the out-group rarely help reduce SPD?
What is sub typing?
- individuals from stereotypes groups who violate the stereotype are subtypes and reclassified into their own group (ex: oh! you're not like them)
What is the extended contact effect?
having an in-group friend who has a good and close relationship with a member of an out-group can reduct one's prejudice toward the outgroup
Describe the study about women police officers who were paired with experience male officers (Milton 1974)
- male officers said their female partner was awesome
- other women: no! mine is an exception/extraordinary
- shows sub typing!
What is contact hypothesis?
under specific circumstances, interacting with out-group members will reduce SPD
When does contact hypothesis work?
1) Superordinate goals (camp study)
2) different groups must be given equal status
3) Multiple interactions with multiple out-group members (bc then you can't subtype)
Describe the "Jigsaw Classroom Study" (Aronson)
- Normal class vs jigsaw classroom- different ethnicity/gender
-a jigsaw classroom had subgroups of 6 students of varying ethnicity
- all working on project together (superordinate goal)
- teacher is being fair/ exposure to outgrip
What were the results of the "Jigsaw Classroom Study"?
- SPD went way down
- Students enjoyed school a lot more bc there was no constant fighting
- Af. Am. and Hispanic GPAs increased
What is the Common In-group Identity Model?
if members of different groups recategorize themselves as members of a more inclusive superordinate group, intergroup attitudes and relations can improve
What are processes that maintain SPD?
1) Confirmation Bias
2) Stereotypes can affect the ABCs non consciously, automatically, and quickly
What is the stereotype threat?
a specific form of anxiety that occurs in individuals of stereotypes groups when they engage in tasks for which there are stereotypically negative expectations
Describe the study about interviewing parents before their girls started middle school
- parents who believed girls could do math= their girls did better in math
- parents who didn't believed girls could do math= their girls did worse in math
Describe the study of white and Af. Am. Stanford students taking a test (steele and aronson)
IV: test indicates problem solving style vs. verbal ability
- problem solving = same
- verbal ability- black scores dropped by 30%
What are metastereotypes?
thoughts about the out-group's stereotypes about them
What do stereotype threats do to people?
- triggers stress
- drains cognitive resources
- loss of focus on take at hand
What happened in the Stanford test study that made black scores drop by 30%?
the simple utterance of verbal ability was enough to activate the stereotype and stereotype threat
How can you reduce stereotype threat?
- describe the task as not indicative of individuals' intellectual capabilities
- informing individuals that their group typically does not perform worse than other groups on the task
- exposing individuals to a member of their group who is said to be an expert in the domain in question
- having individuals think about values and interests that are very important to them that are not under threat
Describe the "Donald paragraph study"
- neutral (chair) and Af. Am. stereotype words (Jazz, busing, bball) were subliminally presented to subjects
- read a paragraph about Donald whose sink breaks and he refuses to pay rent till fixed
- neutral words= Donald is standing up for himself
- stereotype words= Donald is hostile/aggressive
STEREOTYPES CAN AFFECT THE ABCs NON-CONSIOUSLY, AUTOMATICALLY, AND QUICKLY
Describe the first person shooter video game study
- run on college students, Af. Ams. , and police officers
- unarmed black man most likely to get shot
What happens in situations where you are physically tired, being affected by strong emotion, or under high stress?
stereotypes can very quickly guide your behavior bc it's you non-conscious that takes over
What are the 2 kinds of motivation to control prejudiced responses and behavior?
- externally driven- not wanting to appear to others as prejudiced
- internally driven- not wanting to be prejudiced
What is the self-regulation of prejudiced responses model?
internally motivated individuals in particular may learn to control their prejudices more effectively over time
Take home points of SPD
- SPD often results from universally shared processes and the core motivations we all posses (to SPD is to be human)
- Sometimes operates non-consciously and unintentionally, automatically (BUT YOU CAN STILL CONTROL YOUR ACTUAL BEHAVIOR AND NOT BE A DICK)
Describe "41 Shots" issue
- the shooting of an unarmed African man by NYC police officers triggered a great deal of controversy and inspired social psychology experiments designed to contribute to an understanding of the issue involved
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