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Psych 101 social psychology
Terms in this set (41)
Tendency to give a causal attribution to someone's behavior (when we see someone do something do we think it is who they are as a person or was it just the situation that they were in)
Fundamental attribution theory
The tendency for observers, when analyzing others' behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition (one example: for those who drive a car, you may have found yourself in traffic or you get cut off or something else that may upset you. Most of us tend to overestimate the impact of someone's disposition in those moments. So when someone cuts us off we think they're mean or a jerk rather than thinking maybe they are running late because someone's in the hospital or maybe they are a new driver)
feelings, influenced by beliefs, that predispose reactions to objects, people, and events.
occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness, humor (corny jokes about bananas being in cereal, doesn't talk about why you should eat it but uses humor as a tool for persuasion)
central route persuasion
occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts (family guy clip.. Very detailed, talks about exactly how the cereal is made)
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
A set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave (team sports is an example)
Zimbardo Prison Study
(involves 24 individual males who were asked to be apart of a study without really knowing what it was gonna be about.. Assigned to either role of an officer or prisoner. Individuals who are normally good may end up doing bad to other individuals.. Officers were super cruel to inmates and inmates even staged a rebellion)
When attitudes do not fit with actions, tensions are often reduced by changing attitudes to match actions (we get a new car and we learn something about the car like the price for it was high and we think its a pretty cool car and then we learn that another car is about the same but cheaper now we justify our attitude about it saying like aw man I bought this car for all this money)
Options for managing dissonance: (donut situation)
-change the behavior or the cognition
-justify the behavior or the cognition by changing the conflicting cognition
-justify the behavior or the cognition by adding new cognitions (going to the gym after)
-ignore or deny info that conflicts with existing beliefs (this donut is not that fattening)
Demonstrated the chameleon effect with college students
▪ Automatic mimicry helps people to empathize and feel what others feel.
▪ The more we mimic, the greater our empathy, and the more people tend to like us. (then it gears us to other individuals that can be protective in an evolutionary standpoint)
▪ This is a form of conformity. (we conform to the behavior of others)
Adjusting our behavior or thinking toward some group standard
people are most likely to adjust their behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard in the following circumstances:
- They feel incompetent or insecure.
- Their group has at least three people.
- Everyone else agrees.
- They admire the group's status and attractiveness.
- They have not already committed to another response.
- They know they are being observed
- Their culture encourages respect for social standards.
Normative social influence
Reason why people may conform: Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
Informational social influence
Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
Stanley Milgram's experiments
-People obeyed orders even when they thought they were harming another person.
- Strong social influences can make ordinary people conform to falsehoods or exhibit cruel behavior.
- In any society, great evil acts often grow out of people's compliance with lesser evils
The presence of others arouses people, improving performance on easy or well learned tasks but decreasing performance on difficult tasks.
- Performance can also be hindered because the most likely, but not necessarily the correct response occurs.
▪ Home town advantage
▪ Crowding effect
- Tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable (Hangover reference)
- A loss of self-awareness and self-restraint that occurs in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity (the purge)
- Thrives in many different settings
- Group discussions STRENGTHEN member beliefs (pulls it more to the extreme side rather than in the middle)
- Agreement for the sake of harmony
Consistent minority voice can sway majority
An unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. To prejudge.
▪ Prejudice generally involves:
- Stereotyped beliefs
:A generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people. (ALL)
- Negative feelings
- A predisposition to discriminatory action
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members.
prejudice + discrimination + power = racism
(state outward their attitudes and opinions)
prejudice that exists outside an individual's conscious awareness
Often lead to the development of attitudes that justify the status quo
the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
- Good is rewarded and evil is punished
prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
fustration agression principle
Frustration creates anger, which can spark aggression (psychological influence)
a commonly understood pattern of interaction that serves as a model of behavior in familiar situations. A culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations ▪ Remember Bandura & Bobo Doll! (social- cultural influence)
• Proximity (mere exposure effect)
• Physical attractiveness
• Similarity of attitudes and interests
▪ Emotions have two ingredients—physical arousal and cognitive appraisal.
▪ Arousal from any source can enhance an emotion, depending on how we interpret and label the arousal.
- Sexual desire + growing attachment = passion of romantic love
Passion-fed hormones (testosterone) give way to oxytocin that supports feelings of trust, calmness, and bonding.
- Attraction and sexual desire endure, without the obsession of early-stage marriage.
- Equity is important to a satisfying and enduring relationship.
- Self-disclosure deepens intimacy.
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
social exchange theory
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
help those in need, mutual exchange return good for good
A situation in which the conflicting parties, by each pursuing their self interest rather than the good of the group, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
Peacemaking: The 4 C's
Contact: exposure and interaction familiarity acceptance connection
Cooperation: finding shared goals, not just focusing on the incompatible goals
Communication: sometimes with mediators
Conciliation: Gestures that reduce tension by showing intension to build alliances rather than winning conflicts. Smile. Apologize.
Recommended textbook explanations
Arlene Lacombe, Kathryn Dumper, Rose Spielman, William Jenkins
Understanding Psychology, Student Edition
Richard A. Kasschau
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
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