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PLSC 300D - Final Exam
Terms in this set (30)
UN Global Compact
A voluntary corporate citizenship initiative endorsing 10 key principles that focus on four key areas of concern: the environment, anticorruption, the welfare of workers around the world, and global human rights.
first stage of moral development
Preconventional. Stage one is punishment avoidance and stage two is moral behavior because of rewards - self interest.
second stage of moral development
Social conformity and law and order motivate moral behavior
Authority and social order
third stage of moral development
Individual sees herself as part of a wider society with an obligation to contribute
Social contract orientation
Universal ethics principle
Hard Trust Model
coercive actions such as government regulation that act as a parent reining in a toddler and result in corporate compliance with the law. Rule of law aspects.
Real Trust Model
the business case for engaging in socially responsible behavior is made, including concepts such as strategic philanthropy, peace, reputation and financial performance. Economic development.
Good Trust Model
aesthetic quest for a higher good through ethical business behavior. Building empathic communities.
The UN approved 2 part norms: the norms and useful interpretation. They are a listing on substantive human rights provisions. They include creative forms of interpretation. The primary protection of human rights lies with the states. There have been critiques: expansive, ambitious, and generally laudatory
Voluntary codes regulating TNCs
Codes of conduct that govern their relationships with other companies in their supply chain
Guidelines for multinational enterprises, UN Global Compact
Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment. It set to deracialize the South African Economy, create opportunities for a nonracial middle class. It is a structured policy intervention by the state aimed at redressing inequalities and creating opportunities for people that have been affected by racism. A company's compliance is measured and opens up doors to more funding opportunities, etc.
used as a gauge of economic inequality, measuring income distribution or, less commonly, wealth distribution among a population
Economic equality & democracy
Wealth matters. True democracy happens when the wealth is more evenly distributed.
A form of policy analysis that examines the likely effects or impacts of proposed or adopted policies. These may be environmental, social, economic, or other significant impacts.
An obligation to society to do more than sell goods and make profits. They have a responsibility towards society and the environment.
Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises. Prevalence is more pronounced at lower income levels, and most survive off of these for income. They are in the private sector. They are confined by a lack of an enabling environment, macroeconomic impediments, lack of access to credit, a negative attitude toward the informal business sector
The Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) is the world's main provider of data on organized violence and the oldest ongoing data collection project for civil war, with a history of almost 40 years. Its definition of armed conflict has become the global standard of how conflicts are systematically defined and studied.
Extractive sector challenges
Most extractives operate in partnership or by contract with nation states whose legal/moral control over the area is in question
Land ownership and land rights in areas inhabited by indigenous people are often confused and poorly regulated
The operational and economic development changes caused by the activities of extractives have profound effects upon local communities
Extractive industries cause serious environmental problems
arguments against corporate positively impacting peace
There is no clear knowledge on how to do effective peace work
Not much concern for effectiveness
It must be based on strict analysis
Peace is essentially not achievable through economic process, no one thing makes peace
arguments for corporate positively impacting peace
peace is enhanced by commerce, which comes from the extractive industry
socioeconomic impact of business
The extractive industry affects
Revenues: If used correctly, they can be beneficial to healthcare, education, infrastructure and support of growth but used incorrectly waste and corruption are inevitable
Employment and economic opportunities: extractive industries generate employment and create the "multiplier effect" but there needs to be a plan in place to ensure local interests receive early support or there is a risk it will remain the province of international companies.
Distortion of existing economy: massive investments require fast production and highly skilled workers, so established industries may struggle to compete in the skilled labor market.
Boom-Town Effects: high cost of living from skilled workers
Sustainable Long-Term Partnerships
Academia and research institutes, development agencies, government agencies, NGOs, community groups
Company responsibilities: funding, commitment, contracting
Community: labor, commitment
Expertise, funding, links
Ensure the sustainability of a long term partnership
Millennium Development Goals
Eight international development goals that all members of the United Nations have agreed to achieve by 2015. to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger;
to achieve universal primary education;
to promote gender equality and empower women;
to reduce child mortality;
to improve maternal health;
to combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases;
to ensure environmental sustainability; and
to develop a global partnership for development
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
A universal set of goals, targets and indicators that UN
member states are expected to use to frame their agendas and political policies over the next 15
years. GOAL 1: No Poverty
GOAL 2: Zero Hunger
GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being
GOAL 4: Quality Education
GOAL 5: Gender Equality
GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation
GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy
GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth
GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
GOAL 10: Reduced Inequality
GOAL 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities
GOAL 12: Responsible Consumption and Production
GOAL 13: Climate Action
GOAL 14: Life Below Water
GOAL 15: Life on Land
GOAL 16: Peace and Justice Strong Institutions
GOAL 17: Partnerships to achieve the Goal
charity v. partnership
Charity is just giving and short term, partnership is usually mutually beneficial
quantitative measure of some entity's reputational value in some context - a community or marketplace.
Alien Tort Statute
Alien Tort Statute also called the Alien Tort Claims Act 28 USCS § 1350 is a United States federal law which allows federal district courts to have original jurisdiction of any civil action brought by an alien for a tort, committed in violation of the law of nations or a treaty of the United States. The Alien Tort Claims Act permits victims of international human rights abuses to sue in U.S. courts. Plaintiffs will usually only choose this option if the defendant is located in, or has property or assets in the United States. Recently, this statute has become significant as a means holding government, military, and corporate leaders responsible for the human rights abuses, including torture, committed as a result of their presence in a foreign country.
corporate motives for good citizenship
The international business community will increasingly need to promote greater economic inclusion and social justice in its operations, or it will be blamed for contributing to the conditions that lead to violent conflict."
a lack of conflict between two countries or groups.
positive content such as restoration of relationships, the creation of social systems that serve the needs of the whole population and the constructive resolution of conflict.
The relationship between trade and conflict
More trade reduces conflict and reduce trade can increase conflict. When considering the size of the economy and the proximity of borders.
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