Social Psych EXAM 3 CH 9
Terms in this set (79)
What is attraction?
the desire to approach another person
What are the sources of attraction?
3) Reciprocity of liking
5) Misattribution of Arousal
What is propinquity? sources of attraction
physical proximity (creates attraction)
What did the college housing by alphabet show? Segal
- 4 years later, peoples' friends last names began with the same letter as their own
Why does propinquity create attraction?
1) opportunity to interact
What is similarity? sources of attraction
we like those who are similar to us (demographically (age, race, etc), personality to predict longevity and satisfaction)
best predictor of marriage longevity and happiness
What is the matching hypothesis?
people are most attracted to and form relationships with others who match them on level of physical attractiveness (contributes to longevity)
What are the benefits of attitudinal similarity?
- it helps predict and control!
- bolsters the view that you're right
What is reciprocity of liking? sources of attraction
we like others who like us
what is the hard-to-get effect?
The tendency to prefer people who are highly selective in their social choices over those who are more readily available because we are uncertain as to whether they like us
what is conspicuous consumption?
- a sexually selected mating signal
- men flaunt resources to attract women
Familiarity sources of attraction
we tend to like those who are familiar to us
What is the Mere Exposure Effect? Zajonc
the more an individual is exposed to a stimulus, the more positively that person evaluates the stimulus
What did the Chinese pictograph study show?
subjects like the pictographs that appeared in the newspaper better than the ones that didn't (and they claimed they've never seen any of them before)
What did the study of what someone thought of a photograph vs what their friends thought? Mita
- friends like the regular pic vs the person liked the mirror pic
-Friends see regular more
-Person sees mirror
What are the boundaries of Meer Exposure Effect?
1) initially, you must feel neutrally towards the stimulus, or at least like it a little bit (if you don't like it at first, you will hate it more then)
2) the stimulus must be novel initially
sources of attraction Misattribution of Arousal
Schachter and Singer's 2 Factor Theory of Emotion
What are Schachter and Singer's 2 Factor Theory of Emotion
1) Undifferentiated physiological arousal (increased heart rate, general excitement)
2) Cognitively label the arousal- attempt to attribute arousal to something in environment
How do you cognitively label your arousal?
1) scan environment to see what could be causing the arousal
2) attribute/label arousal to that cause
3) label determines the emotion you then feel
Schachter and Singer did a study and gave either a saline or adrenaline solution to subjects and exposed them to either a happy or angry confederate, what were the results?
- saline people were neutral
- adrenaline people were happy after the happy confederate and angry after the angry confederate
look around at environment to determine why/label
What is misattribution of arousal?
sometimes people "misattribute" physiological arousal incorrectly to a person, causing attraction to that person
What did the Bridge study show? (Dutton and Aron)
Stopped on a bridge for paragraph story
Iv- male vs female experimenter
iv- stable vs scary bridge
dv- romantic/ sexual content of paragraph
Higher callback rate and sexual content on scary bridge with female experimenter
What did the replication of the bridge study with college students and shock on learning show?
those who received the painful shock were more attracted to the female confederate in the room and had more sexual content in story
what are the effects of beauty?
- more popular
- higher income
- less likely to be convicted of a crime/lighter sentence
- status of partner
What is the halo effect?
- what is beauty is good effect
- persuasive belief that more attractive people possess more positive traits
Is the halo effect true?
- yeah lowkey
- attractive people have better social skills, sex life, happiness, more friends, and less stress
sources of physical attraction are diverse but there are some universals
What are the universal sources of attraction?
1) waist-to-hip ratio of 0.7
2) upside down triangle torso
3) symmetrical faces
4) statistically average facial features
5) hyper masculine or hyper feminine features
6) baby facedness
What does the waist-to-hip ratio show?
health and fertility-->adaptive!!
What do upside down triangle torsos show?
signals strength! --> adaptive!!
Why do people like symmetrical faces?
- signals health and good genes-->adaptive!!
- symmetrical things are easier to process
Merged Faces Langlois-average
merge faces together= more attractive
more average= more attractive
Who has the best features? Average joe? super joe? or ultra joe? why?
ultra joe because even though its less pictures, its the best features
What are hyper masculine features?
square face, broad forehead, wide jaw, bushy eyebrows, wide nose/mouth
What are hyper feminine features?
full lips, big eyes, small chin, round cheeks
Why are hyper masculine and feminine features attractive?
When Perrett assembled pictures and created avg. jane and joe pics and feminized and masculinized these pics, what were the results and why?
Jane: masculine jane<avg jane< feminized jane
Joe: avg joe< masculine joe< feminized joe because the face is dominant but also nurturing
Females most attractive- ultra jane
Male most attractive- feminized avg joe- dominance and nuturing
what is baby facedness?
big eyes, little nose, round cheeks, features in lower half of face
why is baby facedness attractive?
tends to promote nurturing/warmth feelings-->positive feelings-->misattribution of attractive
what is the need for affiliation?
The desire to establish and maintain many rewarding interpersonal relationships.
love and intimate relationships
-close relationship between two adults
1) feelings of attachment (love)
2) fulfillment of psychological needs
3) interdependence (they help fulfill your needs and you help fulfill theirs)
Why are relationships important?
1) we need relationships to become human
2) relationships quality predicts self-esteem and health-live longer
3) relationships are important for physical and psychological well-being
How do feral children show that relationships are important?
- unresponsive to other humans
- no language
- no sexual interest in other humans
- lack self awareness
College students: Would you rather achieve most important goal or have good relationship
88% good relationship
Why are the quality of relationships correlated with self-esteem?
because self-esteem is not a casual agent--it doesn't cause things to happen, it's more of a consequence
Why are relationships important for physical and psychological well-being?
- beeper studies showed people were happier when with those they were close to
- widowed, divorced, unmarried are 2-3x more likely to die
What type of infidelity would a man be more upset about?
What type of infidelity would a woman be more upset about?
Why do relationships end?
increasing over time
satisfaction declines over time
What are the causes of dissatisfaction?
1) external causes
2) internal causes
What are external causes of dissatisfaction?
- financial problems
- in-laws lmao yikers
What are internal causes of dissatisfaction?
1) negative affect reciprocity
2) demand/withdraw interaction pattern
3) distress maintaining attributional style
4) expressing criticism & contempt
What is negative affect reciprocity? internal causes
- tit (haha titties) for tat exchange of negative expressions ("you forgot to clean the dishes!" "ya well you smell!") (exchange relationship)
what is an exchange relationship?
A relationship in which the participants expect and desire strict reciprocity in their interactions.
what is a communal relationship?
A relationship in which the participants expect and desire mutual responsiveness to each other's needs.
what are demand/withdraw interaction patterns? internal causes
- demand=talking about problems
- withdraw= not talking
- men prefer not to talk and females do lawlz classic
what is distress maintaining attributional style? internal causes
- partner's undesirable behaviors are attributed to partner's disposition (it's my bday and you forget to get me flowers=you SUCK!)
- their desirable behaviors are attributed to the situation (you only bought me flowers bc you saw the flower billboard)
what does expressing criticism and contempt mean? internal causes
expressing criticism means finding a fault and expressing contempt means showing you don't respect your partner
- there's more dissatisfaction when women to this to men
What was the 4 Horseman of Divorce study and what did it show?
- couples were brought to lab to talk about their day, a pleasant topic, and topic of conflict they're having
- measures were coded to indicated how much criticism, contempt, defensiveness, and stone walling
- 95% accurate in predicting divorce
4 Horseman of Divorce
Defensiveness- refusing to admit fault
Stonewalling-refusing to admit a problem exists
Causes of Satisfaction
1) if there is conflict in one domain, increase rewards in some other domain
2) perspective taking
3) relationship enhancing attributional style ( attribute partner's positive behaviors to dispositions)
4) engaging in novel, cooperative tasks/superordinate goals (doing new stuff w/ partner increases positive affect/emotion)
Love is like a
triangle lmfao Sternberg
NOT WELL SUPPORTED
Why is love like a mf triangle
because there are 3 components to love
what are the 3 components to love Sternberg
2) passion (physical attraction and sex desire)
3) commitment (decision to be in an enduring relationship)
What are the types of love?
1) romantic love
3) fatuous love
what is romantic love?
- love at the beginning of a relationship
- High Intimacy, High Passion, low Commitment
what is fatuous love?
- High Commitment, High Passion, low Intimacy
what is Companionate love
high intimacy, commitment
what is Infatuation love
What are the 2 "flavors" love comes in lmfao (Hatfield)
1) passionate love
2) companionate love
what is passionate love?
- intense attraction/sexual desire
- physiological arousal
- valued differently (China: passion love=sad love (makes u do dumb things; India: 50% believe you need passionate love)
what is companionate love?
- self-disclose-->increases connectedness
- predicts longevity/satisfaction
Over time, what happens to passionate and companionate love?
passionate tends to subside while companionate increases
what is the social exchange theory?
A perspective that views people as motivated to maximize benefits and minimize costs in their relationships with others.
what does the social exchange theory focus on?
satisfaction and commitment
- a myth!
- don't hold out of them, it's not possible/out there
Things that dont matter for relationship satisfaction or longevity
level of physical attractiveness