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Arts and Humanities
CSAD 222 Final
Terms in this set (63)
// - is this broad or narrow transcription
broad; normal speech
[ ] - is this broad or narrow transcription
narrow; disordered speech
is the glottis open or closed during breathing?
what are the three major biological systems?
respiratory, phonatory (laryngeal), articulatory (supralaryngeal)
does open vocal folds create voiceless or voiced phonemes?
is English speech egressive or ingressive?
contraction of the external intercostal muscles expands the thoracic cavity and rib cage
contraction of internal intercostal muscles
increased velocity, decreases pressure
what happens during phonation?
air is pushed up from the lungs, momentarily opening the vocal folds. Because the air is moving so rapidly, this increase in velocity creates a spontaneous decrease in pressure causing the vocal folds to close again
how many times do vocal folds open and close per second for males?
how many times do vocal folds open and close per second for females?
Pitch is largely dependent on the size of ones ________?
the bigger the larynx, the ______ the pitch; the smaller the larynx the _______ the pitch
list the basic anatomy of the speech organs
pharynx, larynx, trachea
involves the joining together of the speech organs for the production of phonemes
what is the primary articulator for vowels?
what are the articulators for consonants?
lips, teeth, lips/teeth, alveolar ridge, hard palate, velum, glottis, tongue
F1 is _____ related to tongue _______
the higher the tongue is elevated in the mouth, the _______ F1 frequency because there is a small space for air to flow causing constriction
the lower the tongue is elevated in the mouth, the _______ F1 frequency because your oral cavity is open and air can flow without constriction
F2 is directly related to _________
when the tongue is advanced to the front of the mouth, ________ F2 frequency because the oral cavity is open and air can move fast and freely
when the tongue is retracted to the back of the mouth, ______ F2 frequency because the tongue created constrictions by filling the oral cavity
oral/nasal sounds: velum is raised so that air flows through the oral cavity
oral/nasal sounds: velum is lowered so that air can go out the nasal cavity and not the oral cavity
production of two allophones does not change the identity or meaning of the original word (ex. aspirated /p/ and unaspirated /p/)
when two allophones of the same phoneme are found in distinctly different phonetic environments and are not free to vary in terms of where in the mouth they may be produced (ex. the /k/ in kid and could are produced in different places in the mouth because of phonetic restraint of the vowels)
isolated speech where every phoneme is fully pronunciated
phonemes overlap and are not fully articulated due to the lack of time when speaking conversational english
phoneme on the right changes the phoneme on the left
phoneme on the left changes the phoneme on the right
what are the suprasegmental aspects of speech?
stress, timing and intonation
what are the falling intonation categories
complete statements, commands, wh- questions, finality
what are the rising intonation categories?
tag questions, yes or no questions, incomplete thoughts, uncertainty, lists
no audible release burst (leak, put, map, hog, rod)
unreleased stop (p')
frictional noise burst associated with the release of voiceless plosives (p,t,k); occurs only in the initial position of stressed syllables (ex: pass, torn, kiss, atone, repay)
aspirated (p (raised) h)
most common when following a fricative; when you don't spit (ex: spin, escape)
vowels become nasalized in the presence of nasal consonants (m, n, n hook)
audible escape of air through the nose
nasal phonemes are produced without nasalization
voiceless phonemes are produced with partial voicing. surrounded by voiced phonemes makes it sound partially voiced (ex: flap is between a /t/ and a /d/)
phonemes that are normally voiced become devoiced; this may occur when /w, l, r, or j/ follow a voiceless consonant
all disorders involving speech sound production
speech sound disorder
problems with a few phonemes and/or motoric aspect of speech production; fixed with drills and easily assessed
problem with the sound system of a language and rules/patterns of phoneme use in words; this is harder to fix because mental rules must be changed
what does SODA stand for?
substitution, omission, distortion, addition
/m, b, j, n, w, d, p, h/
/s, z, l, r, ʃ, ʒ, ð, θ/
what are the developmental phonological processes?
assimilatory processes, syllable structure processes, substitution processes
what are the idiosyncratic phonological processes?
glottal replacement, initial consonant deletion, backing, stop replacing glide, fricative replacing stop
what factors influence scoring of speech samples/ articulation tests?
client factors (age, dialect, physical & personality characteristics), relationship with client, task factors (intelligibility, linguistic context, successive judgement)
phonetic inventory; it doesn't matter if what is said is correct and there is no adult target
phonemic inventory; what a child says is compared to an adult target
what tests can you do to measure relational analysis>
nasals to glides on consonant chart; singable; can hold the sound out
stops to affricates on consonant chart; obstruction of air flow; cant sing
high frequency hissing sounds /s, z, ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ/
overlap of articulators
deletion of a phoneme
addition of a phoneme
transposition of a phoneme
vowel not fully articulated due to connected speech usually resulting in a /ə/
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