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33 terms

Chapter 8 Psychology

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Sensation
What occurs when a stimulus activates a receptor
Perception
The organization of sensory information into meaningful experiences
Psychophysics
The study of the relationships between sensory experiences and the physical stimuli that cause them
Absolute Threshold
The weakest amount of a stimulus that a person can detect half the time
Difference Threshold
The smallest change in a physical stimulus that can be detected half the time
Weber's law
The principle that for any change in a stimulus to be detected, a constant proportion of that stimulus must be added or subtracted
Signal-Detection Theory
The study of people's tendencies to make correct judgments in detecting the presence of stimuli
Pupil
The opening in the iris that regulates the amount of light entering the eye
Lens
A flexible, elastic, transparent structure in the eye that changes its shape to focus light on the retina
Retina
The innermost coating of the back of the eye, containing the light-sensitive receptor cells
Optic Nerve
The nerve that carries impulses from the retina to the brain
Binocular Fusion
The process of combining the images received from the two eyes into a single, fused image
Retinal Disparity
The differences between the images stimulating each eye
Auditory Nerve
The nerve that carries impulses from the inner ear to the brain, resulting in the perception of sound
Vestibular System
Three semicircular canals that provide the sense of balance, located in the inner ear and connected to the brain by a nerve
Olfactory Nerve
The nerve that carries smell impulses from the nose to the brain
Kinesthesis
The sense of movement and body position
Gestalt
The experience that comes from organizing bits and pieces of information into meaningful wholes
Subliminal Messages
Brief auditory or visual messages that are presented below the absolute threshold
Motion Parallax
The apparent movement of stationary objects relative to one another that occurs when the observer changes position
Constancy
The tendency to perceive certain objects in the same way regardless of changing angle, distance, or lighting
Illusions
Perceptions that misrepresent physical stimuli
Extrasensory Perception (ESP)
An ability to gain information by some means other than the ordinary senses
Perception
The organization of sensory information into meaningful experiences
Psychophysics
The psychological study of questions such as the relationship between color and wavelength is called?
Difference Threshold
The minimal amount of difference a person can detect between two stimuli is the?
Illusions
Incorrect perceptions
Kinesthesis
Is the sense of movement and body position
Binocular Fusion
The combination of 2 images into one
Sensation
Is created when a stimulus activates a receptor
Subliminal Messages
Advertisers sometimes use this, which are brief auditory or visual stimuli presented below the absolute threshold so there is a less than 50% chance that they will be perceived
Absolute threshold
The weakest amount of stimuli required to produce a sensation
Vestibular System
A body's sense of balance is regulated by the___________ connected to the inner ear.