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Chapter 10 Quiz 2
Terms in this set (44)
Swiss psychologist saw a cognitive development as a way of adapting to the environment and theorized that it proceeds in a series of distinct stages
Sensory Motor (birth - 2 yrs)
Pre - operational (2-7 yrs)
Concrete Operational (7-11 yrs)
Formal Operations (11-15 yrs)
No distinct stages in cog. devlp. Infants do not understand the world, Piaget underestimated the influence of social interaction in cog. devlp.
theory of moral development hinges on how a developing person views morality. (see handout)
Pre - conventional,Conventional, Post - conventional
Pre - conventional (preadolescence)
good behavior is mostly to avoid punishment or seek reward
behavior is about pleasing other, and in later adolescence, becoming a good citizen
Post - conventional (Adult)
emphasis is on abstract principles such as justice, equality, & liberty
: research shows many never progress past the conventional level. It does not take cultural influences into account. In his initial study, he used males only.
Thought to be sexist, since females score lower on Kohlberg's test or morality.
Autonomy v. Shame & Doubt
1.5 - 3 yrs. kids develop physical skills (walking, grasping, and rectal control) & learn control but may develop shame and doubt if not handled well.
Cooing, 2 mos.
Babbling - 4 mos. Grunts - mono-syllables "dada" - child makes these sounds in all languages
Intonation for commands & questions (1yr)
Holo-phrases - one word is used to mean a whole sentence. "up, out, more"
"naming" ex. all 4 legged animals are "dogs" (2yrs)
2-3 word sentences (3yrs)
Voc. of 2500 words, sents. of 6-8 words (5+ yrs)
B. F. Skinner
Reinforcement - language develops as parents reward children for language usage.
proposed a language acquisition device.
A neural mechanism for acquiring language is presumed to be "wired" into all humans.
It allows kids to understand grammar, understand what they hear & make sentences.
- evolution shaped language & we have a language instinct.
Parent Child Relationship: 1
Development of Attachment
the tendency to follow the 1st thing seen, occurs in animals
humans emotionally bond with caregiver during infancy, it is based upon interaction with caregiver.
cautious then bold, a sense of independence, desire not to be controlled
the process by which children learn the behaviors and attitudes appropriate to their family and culture, Starts at age 2
Parent Child Relationship: 2
* Erikson - 3
Initiative Vs. Guilt
3yr -6yrs - children are independent & need parental encouragement & not repeated scolding & criticism.
Baumrind Parenting Styles
Authoritarian, Permissive-Indifferent, Permissive-Indulgent, Authoritative
tight control over child, insists on obedience. Kids have poor communication skills, are moody, withdrawn & distrustful.
too little control, and parents are indifferent & neglectful. Kids are overly dependent, lack social skills, & self control.
very attentive & supportive, but not limits on behavior. Kids are immature, disrespectful, impulsive, & out of control.
listen to kids' opinions & explain their decisions, but are still clearly in charge. Kids become self reliant & socially responsible.
Relationships with other children
Solitary play, Parallel play , Cooperative play, Peer group, Nonshared environment
children engaging in some activity all by themselves
the earliest form of interaction in which 2 toddlers play side by side at the same activity but largely ignore each other
age 3 or 4 involving group imagination
As children get older, they develop an understanding of the meaning of friendship
unique aspects of the environment that are experienced differently by siblings
Sex Role Development
age 3, a girl or boy's knowledge of what they are
- age 4-5, the realization that gender depends on what kind of genitals one has and cannot be changed
Gender role awareness
knowing the appropriate behavior for gender
beliefs about presented characteristics of each gender
Sex - typed behavior
socially defined behavior for boys & girls
*Erikson 4 -
Industry v. Inferiority
6-12 yrs The child must deal with demands to learn new skills or risk a sense of inferiority, failure, and incompetence
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