Scheduled maintenance: Thursday, December 8 from 5PM to 6PM PST
Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
AP Gov Test Review - Unit K: SIGs, Voting, Elections, Campaign Finance, Polling, and Media
Terms in this set (162)
organization of people with similar values and policy goals who enter the political process to try and achieve their aims but don't run their own candidates for office
special interest groups
Business groups, labor groups, professional associations, environmental groups, public interest groups, equality groups, single-issue/ideology groups, and think tanks are all examples of what?
special interest groups
Special interest groups or political parties: intense concern with specific issue
special interest group
Special interest groups or political parties: broad concern with many issues
Special interest groups or political parties: accountable to select members
special interest groups
Special interest groups or political parties: accountable to general public
Special interest groups or political parties: endorse candidates as means to a policy objective
special interest groups
Special interest groups or political parties: nominate/elect candidates to capture government power
Special interest groups or political parties: champion policies of self-interest
special interest groups
Special interest groups or political parties: prefer "common good" policies
How do special interest groups act as a linkage institution?
education, mobilize participation, program and official monitoring, and representation
How do special interest groups act as a linkage institution through education?
frame and educate voters and public officials on specific issues
How do special interest groups act as a linkage institution through mobilizing participation?
facilitate and stimulate active political participation (grassroots)
How do special interest groups act as a linkage institution through program and official monitoring?
keep track of government programs, reps, or agencies
How do special interest groups act as a linkage institution through representation?
lobbyists advocate for public policy on behalf of their special interest group
the situation in which people benifit from the activities of an organization (SIG) but do not contribute to those activities
a paid representative who advocates policies on behalf of a special interest group
What is the iron triangle?
a shared-knowledge group consisting of representatives of various interests involved in some particular aspect of public policy
When do issue networks reveal themselves?
anytime a major reform effort or policy goal is seriously pursued
the banding together of several interest groups for the purpose of lobbying
How did the 15th amendment expand voting rights?
African American men could vote
How did the 17th amendment expand voting rights?
direct election of senators
How did the 19th amendment expand voting rights?
women can vote
How did the 23rd amendment expand voting rights?
DC citizens granted electoral votes
How did the 24th amendment expand voting rights?
elimination of poll tax
How did the 26th amendment expand voting rights?
18 year olds can vote
Do most eligible voters vote consistently?
no (more eligible voters consistently cast no vote than those that do for either major political party candidate)
Do those with higher political efficacy (trust in government) hold more positive or negative views of government?
What races are most likely to vote?
white and black
Are women or men more likely to vote?
Are people of low or high levels of education more likely to vote?
high (the more educated a person is, the more likely they are to vote)
Do older or younger citizens vote more?
Do common discussions of politics in a person's life lead them to be more or less likely to vote?
voting based on what is perceived to be in the individual's best interest
rational choice voting
voting based on whether the party or candidate in power should be re-elected based on recent track record
voting based on predictions of how a party or candidate will perform in the future
voting for candidates from one party for all available offices
How does Australia address voter turnout?
How does Germany address voter turnout?
How does Bernie Sanders propose addressing voter turnout?
turn election day into a national holiday
How did Oregon attempt to address voter turnout?
How did Minnesota attempt to address voter turnout?
same day registration
How did Washington attempt to address voter turnout?
mail in voting
How did the national Rock the Vote campaign attempt to solve the problem of youth disengagement?
celebrities urged 18-24 year olds to vote
Was Rock the Vote effective?
somewhat (about 50% of 18-24 year olds voted in 2016)
What issue did the Motor Voter Act attempt to solve?
registration can be more burdensome than voting
How did the Motor Voter Act attempt to making voter registration easier?
citizens can register to vote when renewing a license
Which party supported the Motor Voter Act?
democratic (95% of Dems supported it; 90% of GOP opposed it)
a candidate's viability is determined by generating enthusiasm in party's base via campaign contributions
a closed meeting of the members of a political party to decide questions of policy and the selection of candidates for office
a method used to select delegates to attend a party's national convention. Generally , a local meeting selects delegates for a county-level meeting, which in turn selects the delegates for a higher-meeting; the process culminates in a state convention that actually selects the national convention delegates
caucus/convention method of delegate selection
a special primary election used to select delegates to attend the party's national convention, which in turn nominates the presidential candidate
states' practice of moving delegate selection primaries and caucuses earlier in the calendar year to gain media and candidate attention.
How many delegates does a Republican candidate need to secure in order to have a majority of votes at the convention and become the official nominee?
What are the Republican delegate allocation rules for states?
varies by state (some are conventions, some are winner take all)
How many delegates does a Democratic candidate need to secure in order to have a majority of votes at the convention and become the official nominee?
What political party has 712 super delegates?
a primary election in which voters need not declare their party affiliation and can choose one party's primary ballot to take into the voting booth
a primary election in which voters must declare their party affiliation before they are given the primary ballot containing that party's potential nominees
primary in which registered party members and independents can participate
each party holds a 4-day infomercial to officially nominate their candidate and selling their nominee to the American people called a...
Four tasks of what convention:
1. End primary season by formally naming party's candidate
2. Adopt a party platform
3. Attempt to unify the party and generate momentum
4. broker a solution if the convention opens in contested fashion
National (party) Convention
What is phase one of the election process?
What is phase two of the election process?
primaries and caucuses
What is phase three of the election process?
What is phase four of the election process?
general election campaign
What is phase five of the election process?
election day and electoral college
a body of electors chosen by voters to cast ballots for president and vice president
What electoral college reform effort is an agreement among some states to award all of their electoral votes to whichever presidential candidate wins the overall popular vote in the 50 states?
National Popular Vote interstate compact
What electoral college reform effort gives the electoral vote of each representative to the district they represent (the representative gives their electoral vote to the winner of the popular vote in their district)
In the electoral college reform district plan who do the senators vote for?
The candidate that wins the state's popular vote
Any country that uses single member districts and plurality elections (most popular wins) will typically have how many parties?
What must happen in order to get a powerful and lasting third party?
the way elections are held must be changed
hurdles to ballot access, commission on presidential debates, fear of wasted vote, scarce resources, single member districts, plurality winner takes all elections are all challenges faced by who?
third party candidates
Why is the US considered a two party system when the are more than two parties in the US?
the President will be either a Democrat or Republican
In our two-party system, each major party tries to
Appeal to as broad a base as possible
In our two-party system, ______ takes all
the system by which legislative seats are awarded to a party in proportion to the vote that party wins in an election (in Canada the liberal party won 39.5% of the popular vote and got 184 seats, the conservative party won 31.9% of the vote and got 99 seats, the New Democratic party won 19.7% and got 44 seats, etc.)
proportional representation system
What is the purpose of Presidential Matching Funds?
Matches the first $250 of a citizen's contribution
What do the Presidential Matching Funds fund?
To be given Matching Funds what must a Presidential candidate agree to?
What Acts created the public financing system?
Federal Election Campaign Acts of 1972 & 1974
Under the Federal Election Campaign Acts of 1972 & 1974 where did contributions have to be disclosed to?
the Federal Election Commission (FEC)
Originally under the Federal Election Campaign Acts of 1972 & 1974 when is candidate spending limited?
both if the candidate accepted or did not accept public financing
Originally under the Federal Election Campaign Acts of 1972 & 1974 was candidate spending limited even if they used their own money?
Originally under the Federal Election Campaign Acts of 1972 & 1974 were independent expenditures (money spend by other groups independent of the campaign) allowed?
Was the public financing system created in the Federal Election Campaign Acts of 1972 & 1974 found to be constitutional in Buckley v. Valeo?
Was the requirement in the Federal Election Campaign Acts of 1972 & 1974 to disclose contributions to the FEC found to be constitutional in Buckley v. Valeo?
After Buckley v. Valeo the Federal Election Campaign Acts of 1972 & 1974 could only limit candidate spending if...
the candidate accepted public financing
After Buckley v. Valeo could the Federal Election Campaign Acts of 1972 & 1974 limit candidate spending of their own money?
Was the ban on all independent expenditures in the Federal Election Campaign Acts of 1972 & 1974 found to be constitutional or unconstitutional in Buckley v. Valeo?
What was the reasoning behind the decision in Buckley v. Valeo?
Money is speech and is protected by the 1st Amendment
What court case challenged the Federal Election Campaign Acts of 1972 & 1974?
Buckley v. Valeo
What is another name for the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (2002)
financial contributions to party committees for capital and operational expenses
What type of money/fund was eliminated in BCRA?
financial contributions given directly to a candidate running for congressional office or the presidency
What type of money/fund limits were increased in BRCA which allowed citizens to give more money to candidates?
A preexisting ban on ______ money was strengthened in BRCA
BRCA strengthened FEC requirements about
What legislation requires candidates or parties to say "I am ... and I approve this message" or "the ... Party approves this message"?
What legislation prohibited unions, corporations, and not-for-profit organizations from broadcasting electioneering communications within 60 days of a general election or 30 days of a primary election?
Under BRCA what citizens were prohibited from making political contributions?
What court case challenged BRCA in 2003?
McConnell v. FEC
What aspect of BRCA was found to be unconstitutional in McConnell v. FEC?
minors being prohibited from making political contributions
What court case challenged the BCRA's regulations of money corporations and unions can directly spend on electioneering messages during an election?
Citizens United v. FEC
What was the result of Citizens United v. FEC (2010)
corporate funding of independent political broadcasts in candidate elections cannot be limited so long as they don't coordinate
What court case opened the floodgates for SuperPACs and "dark" money in electioneering?
Citizens United v. FEC
What court case ultimately created PACs?
Buckley v. Valeo
What is a PAC?
Political Action Committee
groups spending money independently of the campaigns is known as
The supreme court found limitations on independent expenditures unconstitutional in what two pieces of legislation?
FECA and BCRA
a type of PAC which may raise unlimited sums of money from corporations, unions,
and individuals but is not permitted to contribute to or coordinate directly with parties or candidates but can make direct contributions to certain campaigns
Nonprofit groups that are named after tax loopholes that allow unlimited contributions
527s and 501(c)(4)
Corporations contributions to ____ are limited and disclosed
Corporations contributions to _________ and _______ are unlimited
Super PACs and 501(c)(4)
501(c)(4) can contribute unlimited money with no disclosure to
What can Super PACs do?
create independent expenditures
What can Super PACs not do?
give money directly to candidates
What was the point of origin for many trust/belief issues in polls?
the literary digest fiasco (1936) (sent out 10 million postcards, got 2 million responses, predicted Landon crushes FDR, wrong because only took samples from rich - large number of people homeless who didn't get postcards or didn't have time to respond but still voted for FDR)
What was the name of the poll that predicted the 1936 election successfully and has been the household name and standard bearer in polling ever since?
George Gallup's Gallup Poll
a representation of the various attitudes citizens hold regarding a given issue, candidate/official, or governing institution
public opinion polls
____________ varies over time, focuses/redirects policy agenda, and reflects popularity, not expertise
What are the four types of polls?
benchmark, exit, straw, and tracking
Purpose of this poll is to gather general information and about people's views/concerns
This poll is conducted outside of a polling place on Election Day to predict the outcome of the election later in the news day
this poll offers an unscientific snapshot of a candidate or policy's popularity to a skewed audience that is likely to change with the political wind
this polls asks people the same or similar questions overtime to track the path of public opinion
this poll can cause campaigns to prioritize some issues and downplay others
this poll can cause a newsroom to break the biggest story or humiliate itself
this poll can lead to expanded coverage of a particular candidate/issue
posing a question in a way that emphasizes a certain perspective
issue framing can lead to ...
polls with wording/methods that seem to push individuals toward a desired result
every single member in a given population must have an equal chance of selection into the sample
group of people mean to represent a larger population (50% of population is female, so 50% of sample should be female)
checking and adjusting a sample to ensure demographic groups are proportionally represented (if you have only 30% females in samples, then only poll females until they make up 50% of sample)
computer randomly calls possible numbers in a given area until enough people respond to establish a representative sample
What is one limit to random digit-dialing?
Cell phone users tend to be younger, male, less white, renters, people with roommates, and people in poverty which affects the ____________ sampling in polls
the tendency to give socially acceptable answers, even if not true
social desirability bias
what margin of error do 95% of polls that survey 1500+ fall within
+/- 3% (polls outside of this are less credible)
the bigger the sample size and closer to Election Day, the more likely it is to be accurate
predictive correlation relationsips
polls give select stats/facts voters can use to further reinforce our perspective
people hoping on a political trend polling as popular
media outlets fixate on reporting who is winning rather than providing voters with policy and qualification analysis
horse race journalism
politicians become so susceptible to public opinion polls they refuse to act until an opinion becomes popular
follow the followers phenomenon
have conversations about political issues, often times with a diverse group of voters. Provides qualitative feedback, not simply quantititative
How does media act as a "gatekeeper"?
determine newsworthiness of stories (only bring "necessary stories to your attention and filter out "unnecessary" stories)
How does media socialize citizens?
inform electorate (report news) and influence opinions (interpret news)
How does media act as "scorekeeper"?
provides a narrative "things are good/bad"
How does media act as a "watchdog"?
investigate and expose scandal
What is the current controversy facing media?
concerted effort to deliver and let stories speak for itself
commentating on the story from a point of view
seeking media that confirms our beliefs
using entertainment to spin news
The algorithms on your phone will pick up on what you view and will bring you more of it (
if you look at liberal/conservative leaning things the algorithms will give you more and more of liberal/conservative leaning things)
What is important to remember when reading/listening/watching news today?
everything has a perspective/POV and you should seek to balance it with other stories
a massive parent corporation owns a large number of companies in various mass media such as TV, radio, publishing, movies, and the internet (ownership is concentrated and content is homogenized)
What are the four linkage institutions?
Interest Groups, Political Parties, Elections, and The Media
Other sets by this creator
German Vocab 47-49
List four possible tax deductions, and explain the effect that a tax deduction will have on taxable income and on income tax due.
Various companies make annual reports (sometimes on Form 10-K) available on their corporate website.  Access the annual report indicated for each of the following U.S.-based multinational corporations to complete the requirements:   International Business Machines Corporation, 2017 Annual Report.   Oracle Corporation, Form 10-K for the Fiscal Year Ended May 31, 2018. **Required** Determine whether the company’s foreign operations have a predominant functional currency.
Rensing Groomers is in the dog-grooming business. Its operating costs are described by the following formulas: | Formulas | | |------------------------------|------------------| | Grooming supplies (variable) | y= $0 +$5x | | Direct labor (variable) | y= $0 +$14x | | Overhead (mixed) | y= $10,000 +$1x | Milo, the owner, has determined that direct labor is the cost driver for all three categories of costs. ***Instructions*** (a) Prepare a flexible budget for activity levels of 550, 600, and 700 direct labor hours.
Why is sleep characterized as an altered state of consciousness? Why do you think we sleep?
Recommended textbook solutions
Donald E. Kieso, Jerry J. Weygandt, Terry D. Warfield
Fundamentals of Financial Management, Concise Edition
Eugene F. Brigham, Joel Houston
Fundamentals of Financial Management
Eugene F. Brigham, Joel F Houston
Don Herrmann, J. David Spiceland, Wayne Thomas
Other Quizlet sets
Probe Tube Measures
CA Jurisprudence Obtaining CEU's
Historia del Arte - Tema 3, 4, 5