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42 terms

AP BIO ch.9~10

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fermenation
partial degradation of sugars that occurs without the use of oxygen
redox reactions
chemical reactions involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; also called oxidation-reduction reaction
oxydation
the loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reation
Glycolysis
splitting of glucose into pyruvate. is one of the one metabolic pathway that occurs in all living cells, serving as the starting pt for fermenation or aerobic respiration
oxidative phosphorylation
the production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain
chemiosmosis
E stored in form of hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane is used to drive cellular work such as synthesis of ATP
proton-motive force
potential E stored in form of an electrochemical gradient, generated by the pumping of hydrogen ions across biological membranes during chemiosmosis
aerobic
containing O; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that requires O
anaerobic
Lacking O;eferring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that lacks O and may be poisoned by it
alcohol fermentation
conversion of pyruvate to carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol
light reactions
The steps in photosynthesis that occur on the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast and that convert solar E to chemical E of ATP NADPH evolving O in process
Calvin Cycle
The second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions) involving CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate
photophosphorylation
process generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of a proton-motive F generated by thylakoid of chloroplast during light reactions
carbon fixation
the incorporation of carbon from CO2 into an organic compound by an autotrophic organism (plant, another photosynthetic organism, or a chemoautotrophic prokaryote
cytochrome
an iron-containing protein, a component of electron transport chains in mitochondria and chloroplasts
noncyclic electron flow
a route of electron flow during the activity of the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves both photosystems and produces ATP, NADPH, and O. The net electron flow is from H2O to NADP+
cellular respiration
the most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway, O is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel (In Eu cells, mitochondria)
reducing agent
In generalized reaction, substance X, the electron donor
oxidizing agent
In generalized reaction, substance Y, the electron acceptor
critic acid cycle
Takes place in pyruvate, completes the breakdown of glucose by oxidizing a derivative of pyruvate to CO2
substrate-level phosphorylation
Type of ATP synthesis that occurs when an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate molecule to ADP, rather than adding an inorganic phosphate to ADP as in oxidative phosphorylation
cytochromes
most of the electron carriers between ubiquinone and O.
facultative anaerobes
organisms, such as yeasts and many bacteria, can make enough ATP to survive using either fermentation or respiration. On cellular level, muscle cells. In a ---- pyruvate is a fork in the metabolic road that leads to alternative catabolic routes
beta oxidation
metabolic sequence that breaks down fatty acids down to two-carbon fragments, which enter the citric acid cycle as acetyl CoA
autotrophs
self-feeders; sustain themselves without eating anything derived from other organisms. produce organic molecules from CO2 and other inorganic raw materials from the environment. producers
heterotrophs
other-feeders; obtain their organic material by the second major mode of nutrition. live on compounds produced by other organisms. consumers
chlorophyll
green pigment within chloroplasts, is where the color of the leaf comes from
mesophyll
where chloroplasts are found mainly in the cell. it's the tissue in the interior of the leaf
stomata
sing. stoma; pores where CO2 enters the leaf and O exits
cellular respiration
the most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway, O is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel (In Eu cells, mitochondria)
reducing agent
In generalized reaction, substance X, the electron donor
oxidizing agent
In generalized reaction, substance Y, the electron acceptor
critic acid cycle
Takes place in pyruvate, completes the breakdown of glucose by oxidizing a derivative of pyruvate to CO2
substrate-level phosphorylation
Type of ATP synthesis that occurs when an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate molecule to ADP, rather than adding an inorganic phosphate to ADP as in oxidative phosphorylation
cytochromes
most of the electron carriers between ubiquinone and O.
facultative anaerobes
organisms, such as yeasts and many bacteria, can make enough ATP to survive using either fermentation or respiration. On cellular level, muscle cells. In a ---- pyruvate is a fork in the metabolic road that leads to alternative catabolic routes
beta oxidation
metabolic sequence that breaks down fatty acids down to two-carbon fragments, which enter the citric acid cycle as acetyl CoA
autotrophs
self-feeders; sustain themselves without eating anything derived from other organisms. produce organic molecules from CO2 and other inorganic raw materials from the environment. producers
heterotrophs
other-feeders; obtain their organic material by the second major mode of nutrition. live on compounds produced by other organisms. consumers
chlorophyll
green pigment within chloroplasts, is where the color of the leaf comes from
mesophyll
where chloroplasts are found mainly in the cell. it's the tissue in the interior of the leaf
stomata
sing. stoma; pores where CO2 enters the leaf and O exits