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19 terms

AP Bio Chapter 9 Vocabulary (Cellular Respiration)

The vocabulary for chapter 9 and 10 of AP biology - cellular respiration and photosynthesis. (from Campbell text)
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Fermentation
partial degradation of sugars that occurs without the use of oxygen (catabolic process)
Aerobic Respiration
a catabolic pathway where oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel
Cellular Respiration
anaerobic and aerobic respiration
Oxidation
the loss of electrons from one substance
Reduction
the addition of electrons to another substance
Reducing Agent
the electron donor
Oxidizing Agent
the electron acceptor
NAD+
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, an electron carrier
Electron Transport Chain
oxidative phosphorylation (occurs in inner membrane of mitochondria)
Oxidative Phosphorylation
producing ATP, powered by the redox reactions of the electron transport chain
Substrate-Level Phosphorylation
making ATP by an enzyme transferring phosphate group from a substrate molecule to ADP.
Acetyl CoA
Acetyl Coenzyme A, which is produced by pyruvate
ATP synthase
a protein complex which helps phosphorylate ADP into ATP
Chemiomosis
the gradient across a membrane used to drive cellular work
Proton-Motive Force
the H+ gradient
Alcohol Fermentation
the fermentation where pyruvate is converted to ethanol
Lactic Acid Fermentation
the fermentation where pyruvate is reduced directly to NADH
Obligate Anaerobes
organisms which only carry out fermentation or anaerobic respiration and cannot survive in the presence of oxygen
Facultative Anaerobes
organisms which produce enough ATP to use either fermentation or respiration