40 terms

Cellular Respiration

STUDY
PLAY
Fermentation
partial degradation of sugars that occur without the use of oxygen
Cellular Respiration
most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway
Redox Reactions
transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; oxidation-reduction reaction
Oxidation
loss of electrons from one substance
Reduction
addition of electrons to another substance
Reducing Agent
the electron donor
Oxidizing Agent
the electron acceptor
Glycolysis
catabolic pathways that occurs in the cytosol beginning the degradation process by breaking glucose into two molecules of a compound(pyruvate)
Citric Acid Cycle
catabolic pathway that takes place within the mitochondrial matrix by oxidizing a derivative of pyruvate to carbon dioxide
Oxidative Phosphorylation
mode of ATP synthesis that energy released at each step of the chain is stored in a form the mitochondrion can use to make ATP
Substrate-Level Phosphoylation
smaller amount of ATP is formed directly in a few reactions of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle by a mechanism
Cytochromes
proteins that electron carriers between ubiquinone and oxygen
Chemiosmosis
energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane is used to drive cellular work such as the synthesis of ATP
Proton-Motive Force
H+ gradient ....
Alcohol Fermentation
pyruvate is converted to ethanol
Lactic Acid Fermentation
pyruvate is reduced directly by NADH to form lactate as an end product with no release of CO2
Chlorophyll
the green pigment located within chloroplast
Mesophyll
the tissue in the interior of the leaf
Stomata
microscopic pores in the leaves
Stroma
dense liquid within the chloroplast
Thylakoid
interconnected membranous sacs that separates stroma from other campartments
Light Reaction
first stage of photosynthesis
Calvin Cycle
second stage of photosynthesis
Carbon Fixation
initial incorporation of carbon into organic compounds
Electromagnetic Spectrum
entire range of radiation
Wavelength
distance between the crests of electromagnetic waves
Spectrophotometer
instrument that measures ability of pigment to absorb various wavelengths of light
Absorption Spectrum
graph plotting pigment's light absorption versus wavelength
Chorophyll a
violet-blue and red light work best for photosynthesis
Action Spectrum
graph that depicts the relative effectiveness of different wavelengths of radiation in driving a particular process
Chorophyll b
almost identical to chlorophyll a, slightly different absorption spectrum
Carotenoids
accessory pigment; either yellow or orange, in the chloroplasts of plants. By absorbing wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot, carotenoids broaden the spectrum of colors that can drive photosynthesis
Photosystem
light-capturing unite located in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast, consisting of reaction center surrounded by numerous light-harvesting complexes
Light-harvesting Complex
complex of proteins associated with pigment molecules that capture light energy and transfers it to reaction-center pigments in a photosystem
Reaction Center
complex of proteins associated with two special chlorophyll a molecules and a primary electron acceptor; located centrally in a photosystem, this complex triggers light reactions of photosynthesis; excited by light energy, one of the chlorophylls donate electron to primary electron acceptor, which passes electron to electron transport chain
Primary Electron Acceptor
specialized molecule sharing reaction center with the pair of reaction center chlorophyll a molecule; it accepts an electron from one of these two chlorophylls
Photosystem I
one of two light-capturing unites in a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it has two molecules of P700 chlorophyll a at its reaction center
Photosystem II
one of two light-capturing unites in chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it has two molecules of P680 chlorophyll a at its reaction center
Noncyclic Electron Flow
route of electron flow during the light reaction of photosynthesis that involves both photosystems and produces ATP, NADPH, and oxygen
Cylic Electron Flow
route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves only photosystem I and that produces ATP byt bit NADPH or oxygen