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24 terms

Gene mutation and regulation Ch. 13 Miller & Levine

Chapter 13 of Miller and Levine (RNA and protein synthesis)
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promoter
A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase and indicates where to start transcribing RNA.
intron
A noncoding, sequence within a eukaryotic gene it is spliced out of the mRNA before translation takes place.
exon
The portions of the mRNA which are transported out of the nucleus and becomes part of the protein. (The expressed portions of a DNA sequence.)
mutation
A change in the nucleotide-base sequence of a DNA molecule.
gene mutation
A mutation which involves a single gene. (Includes substitutions, insertions, and deletions)
substitution or point mutation
A single nucleotide is changed, usually changing no more than one amino acid.
missense or nonsense mutation
A substitution mutation where and codon was changed to one of the stop codons. This causes the protein to be incomplete.
frameshift mutation
A mutation caused by an insertion or deletion within a gene sequence. This causes a shift in the reading frame. This can change every amino acid downstream of the mutation.
mutagen
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation.
chromosomal mutations
Changes in a DNA sequence that affect an entire chromosome or multiple chromosomes. (These include deletions, duplications, inversions, and translocations.)
translocation
Change to a chromosome in which a fragment of one chromosome attaches to a nonhomologous chromosome
inversion
A kind of chromosomal mutation in which the order of the genes in a section of a chromosome is reversed/flipped from the usual order.
duplication
A kind of chromosomal mutation where a portion of the chromosomes has been repeated (copied twice).
deletion
A kind of chromosomal mutation where a portion of the chromosome has been lost (removed).
polyploidy
A chromosomal alteration in which the organism possesses more than two complete chromosome sets. A beneficial mutation which occurs in plants, usually resulting in larger and stronger plants.
Most mutations...
do NOT effect the health of an individual.
DNA binding proteins
Proteins which bind to DNA and help regulate how much (or little) mRNA is created from that sequence of DNA. These are found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes.
operon
A group of genes that are regulated together in prokaryotes.
operator
A specific DNA nucleotide sequence where transcriptional regulatory proteins can bind.
RNA interference
(RNAi) a technique used to silence the expression of selected genes. RNAi uses synthetic double-stranded RNA molecules that match teh sequence of a particular ene to trigger the breakdown of the gene's messenger RNA.
differentiation
Is the development of a cell from an unspecialized to a specialized state.
homeotic gene
Any of the genes that control the overall body plan of animals by controlling the developmental fate of groups of cells.
homeobox gene
Genes that code for transcription factors that activate other genes that are important in cell development and differentiation.
hox gene
Series of genes that controls the differentiation of cells and tissues in an embryo.