15 terms

Gene mutation and regulation Ch. 13 Miller & Levine

Chapter 13 of Miller and Levine (RNA and protein synthesis)
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promoter
A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase and indicates where to start transcribing RNA.
mutation
A change in the nucleotide-base sequence of a DNA molecule.
gene mutation
A mutation which involves a single gene. (Includes substitutions, insertions, and deletions)
substitution or point mutation
A single nucleotide is changed, usually changing no more than one amino acid.
frameshift mutation
A mutation caused by an insertion or deletion within a gene sequence. This causes a shift in the reading frame. This can change every amino acid downstream of the mutation.
mutagen
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation.
chromosomal mutations
Changes in a DNA sequence that affect an entire chromosome or multiple chromosomes. (These include deletions, duplications, inversions, and translocations.)
translocation
Change to a chromosome in which a fragment of one chromosome attaches to a nonhomologous chromosome
inversion
A kind of chromosomal mutation in which the order of the genes in a section of a chromosome is reversed/flipped from the usual order.
duplication
A kind of chromosomal mutation where a portion of the chromosomes has been repeated (copied twice).
deletion
A kind of chromosomal mutation where a portion of the chromosome has been lost (removed).
polyploidy
A chromosomal alteration in which the organism possesses more than two complete chromosome sets. A beneficial mutation which occurs in plants, usually resulting in larger and stronger plants.
Most mutations...
do NOT effect the health of an individual.
RNA interference
(RNAi) a technique used to silence the expression of selected genes. RNAi uses synthetic double-stranded RNA molecules that match teh sequence of a particular ene to trigger the breakdown of the gene's messenger RNA.
differentiation
Is the development of a cell from an unspecialized to a specialized state.