Environmental Science: Exam 2
Terms in this set (93)
The London Smog was mainly caused by emissions of sulphur dioxide and particulate
matter; this type of smog is _______________ smog
A substance with a Logkow of 5.7 is ______________ (hydrophilic or lipophilic)
Naïma decided to buy a shower alarm (that beeps after she has showered for five
minutes) after she had consulted a website on combating climate change.
Peter takes his empty glasswork to the recycling station. His family members and
neighbours have always done this as well.
The behavioural processes behind these actions are for Naïma ___ and for Peter
Copying behavior that is unlikely to occur naturally and spontaneously
Comparing ourselves with others to form judgments of our talents, abilities, qualities, and so forth.
Wait and see
not acting on a problem to see how/of if escalates
Information, education, and communication (IEC)
The federal government of the United States initiated an emissions trading system
for acidifying agents (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides). This measure appeared to
be very successful because emissions were cut at lowest __________ possible
Model aimed at changing consumer behavior by looking at the needs, opportunities and abilities of the consumer that cause that behavior
________________ tend to focus on single objectives; therefore environmental issues are
not internalized in decision-making
Believing that all events in life are inevitable and determined by fate
to ensure stability.
>Technical-economic approach associated with cost benefit analysis.
in management and information.
>Bureaucrats and politicians within institutions.
someone oriented toward maximizing personal gains, without regard to the rest of the group
A person who believes in the equality of all people
belief that nature is random and unpredictable and we will never know how it will respond to activities
the __________ in MCA are the attributes to measure the performance in relation to the objectives
Stratospheric ozone depletion by chlorofluorocarbons is a typical example of _________ _____________
The alteration of materials by exposure to light
A chemical reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; also called oxidation-reduction reaction.
an example of this is if an individual switches to renewal energy but then increases energy use because he/she is using renewable energy
A pollution level of zero would imply very _______ abatement costs.
optimal pollution level
Occurs when the marginal benefit of the last unit of pollution exactly equals the marginal cost of pollution
the _______ the discount rate the more the stakes of future generations are valued
includes the formal and informal 'rules of the game' that shape behavior, includes national states, markets, formal and informal policy-science interfaces and
laws; does not necessarily include organizations
___________ _____________ is beneficial because it focuses on a relatively abstract target in the long term the stakeholders move
away from their (vested) interests.
As developed as part of the Natural Step, involves imagining what a sustainable future must hold. From that vision, creative businesses then look backwards to the present and determine what must be done to arrive at that future.
Assess environment-society interactions, are policy-motivated and involve
Integrated Assessment Modeling
Tools that assess environmental issues considering many aspects (ex: the social impacts of carbon)
What conceptual model is at the basis of both RAINS (Regional Acidification
INformation and Simulation) and TARGETS (Tool to Assess the Regional and Global
Environmental and health TargetS)?
Meeting people's needs in the present in a way that can continue into the future
Characterized by low birth and death rates, use of renewable energy sources, recycling of materials, and emphasis on durability, efficiency, and stability.
chance x effect
risk with low probability and high impacts (ex: nuclear power plant accident)
the social science that studies the
production, distribution and consumption of goods and
services; ___________ is about welfare (including non-use values) and efficiency, but also about distribution
Any form of wealth available for use in the
production of more wealth
occurs when any of the conditions
required for a well-functioning competitive market are not met
Unintended harms or costs
that are generated from a
market transaction that are
borne by others, but which
are not compensated for
Benefits generated by a
market transaction that are
enjoyed by others, but
which these others do not pay for
cap and trade
_____ and ________ programs set maximum amounts for
pollutants, but let facilities facing costly cleanups pay others with lower costs to reduce emissions on their behalf
focuses on scarcity, markets, distribution of
welfare, and choices
_________________ economics aims at growth and assumes we
do not run out of resources
Advocacy coalition framework
Policymaking theory developed by Paul Sabatier and Hank Jenkins-Smith that focuses on the "interactions of competing advocacy coalitions," particularly within a policy subsystem, such as agriculture or environmental protection. Each coalition consists of policy actors from different public and private institutions and different levels of government that share a particular set of beliefs about the policies that government should promote.
____________ is a struggle among competing interest groups
as they strive to shape public policy to suit their own
Costs and benefits
In choosing between policy alternatives, preference should be given to those with the greatest cumulative welfare and the least negative impacts
Characterized by no consensus on the values and no consensus on knowledge; policy as learning, science as problem finding
Moderately structured problem
Characterized by consensus on the values and no consensus on knowledge; Policy as negotiation
Science as advocate
Characterized by consensus on the values and consensus on knowledge; Policy as ruling
Science as problem solver
Badly structured problem
Characterized by no consensus on the values and a consensus on knowledge; Policy as
accommodation Science as mediator
- there is disagreement about the definition of the problem
- there is disagreement about the solutions of the problem
- benefits and costs of measures are unequally distributed
- high uncertainty about the impacts
More research often will not help (if values conflict)
• Stakeholder involvement, consensus building
• Learning by doing
A technique for assessing the potential environmental
impacts associated with a product by compiling an
inventory of relevant environmental exchanges of the product throughout its life cycle and evaluating the
potential environmental impacts associated with these exchanges
Expresses the product's
• Elements often include:
• Its durability
• Its performance quality
Inventory results (LCA)
• Aggregated list of all pressures
• Break into inputs and outputs and
their relative contribution to the
• Types of Land Use
• Both quantitative and qualitative
Impact assessment (LCA)
Focuses on characterizing the type
and severity of environmental impact more specifically
Zoeteman's integrated index
Assesses countries' environmental impacts as it related to economic activity
• Integrates a set of indicators
• Balance between simplicity and completeness
- Ecological footprint
- Poverty gap index
The situation in which less developed countries use newer technology without first using the precursor technology.
Corporate social responsibility
The notion that corporations are expected to go above and beyond following the law and making a profit; they should be socially accountable as well
Calculated by averaging scores
on environmental, social and economic criteria
is the operational representation of an
attribute (quality, characteristic, property) of a given system, by a quantitative or qualitative variable, including its value, related to a reference
The theory that environmental regulations motivate firms to identify cost-saving innovations that otherwise would not have been implemented
The tendency to put a higher present value on events that will happen in the present than on events that will happen in the future; money is worth more now than in the future
The tendency to prefer a sure gain of a moderate amount over a riskier outcome, even if the riskier outcome might have a higher expected payoff.
A measure of how the costs and benefits for a given policy or program are spread across society
Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA)
- Attempts to assign values to resources and social and environmental effects of carrying out a given
• Tries to find optimal efficiency point at which the
marginal cost of pollution control equals the marginal benefit
A ________ ____________- curve shows the benefits and costs of abatement options, depending on the technologies available
Often reflect non-market values and can
be estimated by e.g. hedonic pricing and contingent valuation methods
Best estimate of probability distribution of all possible future developments
Best estimate of future developments
Assessment of consequences of certain assumed
developments ("what-if"); aims to illuminate choices of the present in the light of
Model simulation forced by a scenario
Stratospheric ozone depletion
Caused by ozone-depleting chemicals (ODCs) such as CFCs, methyl chloroform or trichloromethane (CHCl3), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), halon (haloalkanes), methyl bromide (CH3Br)— all of which attack stratospheric ozone. The Cl or Br atoms "attack" the ozone molecules and cause the thinning of this layer. Global Agreement to decrease ODC - Montreal Protocol (1987)
A brownish haze that is a mixture of ozone and other chemicals, formed by NOx in the presence of sunlight; a local environmental problem
The ________ layer is a portion of the stratosphere with a higher concentration of ozone molecules; forms a protective shield that filters out harmful
The following are ________ to the ozone layer:
- use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and bromine containing haloalkanes (halons)
- jet travel through the stratosphere (NO)
Chlorinated Fluorocarbons are chemicals that break down the ozone layer; were used because they are very stable molecules; they break down due to intense UV radiation and release chlorine atoms
is resulting in an increase in ultraviolet
radiation striking the Earth; UV exposure increases risk of skin cancer, cataract, also impacts ecosystems and crops negatively.
A corrosive gas which reacts with water
vapor in the air to cause acid rain
reactive gases formed when nitrogen is heated above 650°C in the presence of oxygen; combine with water to make the nitric acid found in acid rain
An economic model, based on systems thinking, that is restorative and regenerative by design and aims to keep products, components, and materials at their highest utility and value at all times, distinguishing between technical and biological cycles.
The process of formation of the numerous chemical forms in which an element or a combination of elements can exist
Designates the energy of the inter and intra molecular bonds that bind the systems atoms and molecules together
Transformation of a compound from the solid state to the gaseous state without the intermediate formation of a liquid
The chemical and biological breakdown of inorganic/organic compounds
one of the most toxic human-made chemicals. Stable, long-lived, by-product of herbicide production enters environment as fallout from the incineration of municipal and medical waste and persists for many years.
synthetic chemicals containing chlorine that are used in the manufacture of plastics and other industrial products, become stored in the tissue of animals, and also persist in the environment
Persistent organic pollutants. Chemical compounds that persist in the environment and retain biological activity for a long time.
The accumulation of a substance, such as a toxic chemical, in various tissues of a living organism.
Persistence (of a compound)
Extent to which a compound does not decompose and remains in the environment
Relatively enduring alterations of thought or behavioral intentions that result from experience and are concerned with the attainment of public policy
Volume of accumulated toxins in the body
Component in plastics that makes them soft; mimics estrogen; can cause reproductive abnormalities/infertility, potential link to obesity
An international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion