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GEOLOGY TEST 4
Terms in this set (119)
water that fills the cracks and spaces in underground soil and rock layers
porosity and permeability
properties of earth materials that allow them to absorb water
The percentage of the total volume of a rock or sediment that consists of open spaces.
size, shape, sorting, arrangement
porosity is dependent on:
measurement of the rate at which water can flow through a rock
means rocks are porous but not permeable
means rocks are permeable but not porous
poorly rounded, poorly sorted, & well cemented sediments means there is ________ pore space.
well rounded, well sorted, & no cement means there is _________ pore space.
A zone above the water table and below the land surface that is not saturated with water
the level below which the ground is saturated with water.
The area of permeable rock or soil in which the cracks and pores are totally filled with water.
region above the water table with water drawn up by capillary action
a beach is an example of a _____________ water table.
a desert is an example of a __________ water table.
perched water table
where an aquitard creates a local zone of saturation above the main water table
A body of rock or sediment that stores groundwater and allows the flow of groundwater.
A body of rock that will absorb water slowly, but will not transmit it fast enough to supply a well.
A slab of impervious surface at the bottom of an aquifer that does not allow water to go through
an aquifer surrounded by a layer of impermeable rock or clay that impedes water flow
local aquifer in Lafayette
Chicot aquifer is ________ years old.
over pumping, salt water intrusion, and pollution
Problems arising in the Chicot aquifer include:
A well made by digging or drilling into the zone of saturation.
cone of depression
lowering of the water table around a pumping well
artesian pressure surface
The elevation of the water table in the recharge area, defines the highest level to which well water can rise; also called the potentiometric surface
City water systems are similar to _________________________.
the sinking or settling of land to a lower level in response to various natural and human-caused factors
features that are created when water dissolves bedrock (limestone only)
A type of landscape in rainy regions where there is limestone near the surface, characterized by caverns, sinkholes, and valleys
A calcite deposit that hangs from the roof of a cave
A cone-shaped calcite deposit that builds up from the floor of a cave
a pool formed by groundwater that has risen to the surface after being heated by a nearby body of magma
A fountain of water and steam that builds up pressure underground and erupts at regular intervals.
Any large mass of ice that moves slowly over land
Glaciation of a mountainous area.
The covering of a large region of a continent by a sheet of glacial ice.
A long, narrow glacier that forms when snow and ice build up in a mountain valley
a very large, thick mass of glacial ice flowing outward in all directions from one or more accumulation center(s)
a covering of ice over a large area, especially on the polar region of a planet. (permanent)
A huge block of floating ice broken from a glacier, found in the most northerly and southerly areas of the world's oceans
the removal of a body part or the destruction of its function
process by which a block of a glacier breaks off and falls into the sea to form an iceberg
zone of accumulation
The part of a glacial system where snow and ice are accumulating faster than they are melting away.
Antarctic Ice Sheet
holds 91% of the earth's ice and is earth's largest accumulation of fresh water
is the largest scientific research facility in Antartica.
Nathaniel B. Palmer
US sealer who possibly saw Antarctica first, most likely 3rd, discovered Deception island, traveled with British sealer George Powell, couldn't find any seals so neither really cared
Employs an array of sound sources and listening devices, Obtains a profile of a narrow strip of seafloor
center of valley moves faster than sides; surface of ice moves faster than base
The phenomenon in which meltwater accumulates at the base of a glacier, so that the mass of the glacier slides on a layer of water or on a slurry of water and sediment.
A type of glacial movement that occurs within the glacier, below a depth of approximately 50 meters, in which the ice is not fractured.
A deep crack or fissure in the ice of a glacier.
an erosional process by which rocks are pulled out of the ground by a glacier
an erosional process caused by the grinding action of a glacier on a rock
A fine sediment of pulverized rock produced by glacial erosion
Long parallel scars in rocks carved by rock fragments being dragged across them by a glacier (erosional)
elongated, rounded mass of rock which was more resistant to glacial erosion than the surrounding rock
A bowl shaped basin carved by a glacier (erosional)
Small mountain lake or pool
A pyramid-like peak formed by glacial action in three or more cirques surrounding a mountain summit.
a long, steep-sided glacial valley now filled by seawater
sediment deposited directly by a glacier
A mound, ridge, or mass of material that was left on the ground by a receding glacier.
A long mound of till that is smoothed in the direction of the glacier's flow (spoon-shaped)
Layered sediment deposited by streams of water that flow from a melting glacier
a long winding ridge of post glacial gravel and other sediment
A small depression that forms when a chunk of ice is left in glacial till
a steep-sided mound of sand and gravel deposited by a melting ice sheet.
rain shadow desert
A dry area on the lee side of a mountain range. Many middle-latitude deserts are of this type.
A large area of flat land elevated high above sea level
A flat topped rock or hill formation with steep sides.
a flat area on the floor of an undrained desert basin that fills and becomes a lake after heavy rain
A large, low-lying area that uses the sun to evaporate the water, leaving behind the salt.
a broad slope of alluvial material at the foot of an escarpment or mountain.
-erosional bedrock surfaces along a mountain front
-covered by thin layer of debris
-gently sloping surface
most transport in deserts is by _______________________.
sediment that is carried by a stream along the bottom of its channel
The load contains small rocks and soil in suspension, which can make the river look muddy.
rocks shaped by wind blown sediments
Fine yellowish light silt deposited by wind and water. Because of the tiny needle-like shape of its particles, it can be easily shaped and used for underground structures (but vulnerable to earthquake)
A hill or ridge of sand piled up by the wind
Dunes shaped like crescents with the tips pointing downwind from where there is little sand and a flat surface.
A series of long ridges oriented at right angles to the prevailing wind; these dunes form where vegetation is sparse and sand is very plentiful.
dunes forming scalloped rows of sand oriented at right angles to the wind. This form is intermediate between isolated barchans and extensive waves of transverse dunes
vegetation partially covers land, on coastlines, tips point into wind, strong winds, abundant sand
long ridges of sand oriented parallel to the prevailing wind; these dunes form where sand supplies are limited
Dunes that are isolated hills of sand that exhibit a complex, star like form. Develop where wind patterns are changing.
A sampling device used to take shallow samples of the ocean bottom.
A seabed-sampling device capable of punching through up to 25 meters (80 feet) of sediment and returning an intact plug of material.
A device that reflects sound off the ocean bottom to sense water depth. Its accuracy is affected by the variability of the speed of sound through water.
Determining the structure of the oceanic crust beneath sedimentary cover
an igneous rock consisting largely of serpentine, believed to have been formed from the submarine eruption of oceanic crustal and upper mantle material.
the zone of the ocean floor that separates the thin oceanic crust from thick continental crust
A gently sloping, shallow area of the ocean floor that extends outward from the edge of a continent
the slope between the outer edge of the continental shelf and the deep ocean floor.
a seaward extension of a valley that was cut on the continental shelf during a time when sea level was lower, or a canyon carved into the outer continental shelf, slope, and rise by turbidity currents
Sediment derived from the land and transported to the ocean by wind and flowing water.
Sediment made up of fine-grained clay and the skeletons of microscopic organisms that settle slowly down through the ocean water.
the bending of waves so that they move nearly parallel to the shoreline
a water current that travels near and parallel to the shoreline
A strong, narrow current that flows briefly from the shore back toward the ocean through a narrow opening.
a high area of land with a steep slope, projecting into a body of water
water during a high tide; none during a low tide exposed to wave action
The inner portion of the shore, lying landward of the high-tide shoreline. It is usually dry, being affected by waves only during storms.
sediment deposited by waves; flat or slightly sloping upward
The wet, sloping surface that extends from the berm to the shoreline.
a wave cut platform along a seacoast that has been exposed by uplift or by lowering of sea level
A beach formed by longshore drift that projects like a finger out into the water
a sandbar that completely crosses a bay, sealing it off from the open ocean
A ridge of sand that connects an island to the mainland or to another island
a long, relatively narrow island running parallel to the mainland-built up by the action of waves and currents and serving to protect the coast from erosion by surf and tidal surges.
A wall made of rocks or concrete that is built outward from a beach to reduce erosion
A pier or other structure projecting into a body of water to protect against erosion
a barrier that protects a harbor or shore from the full impact of waves
A barrier constructed to prevent waves from reaching the area behind the wall. Its purpose is to defend property from the force of breaking waves.
a coast where land that was formerly below sea level has been exposed either because of crustal uplift or a drop in sea level or both
a coast at which the land is sinking relative to sea level
typically exhibit gently sloping plains showing few effects of erosion; shaped primarily by sediment deposition; deltas, barrier islands, etc.
coasts in which living organisms control landforms along the shore; reefs, mangroves, etc.
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