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GEOG 1111 FINAL EXAM (Hopkins)
Terms in this set (224)
The processes by which rocks are chemically altered or physically broken with little or no transportation of the loosened or altered materials
It can occur both on and below the surface.
Mechanical or Physical Weathering
The breaking down or disintegration (fragmentation) of rocks with no chemical alteration.
Decomposition through chemical alteration; Water is often necessary, since the rock is essentially dissolved away.
By-products of weathering
In most cases rocks will be broken down by a combination of chemical and mechanical weathering process.
partially weathered rock below the surface which overlays the bedrock
unconsolidated material that is the basis of soil development/formation
long-distance carrying away of weathered material
Primary agents of erosion
gravity, water, wind, ice
thin layer of unconsolidated material covering the Earth's surface composed of both mineral & organic material.
soil without the organic material
vertical array of soil layers (horizons)
layer of soil within the soil profile
Soil is a _________ resource, but not an ______________ resource
inorganic compounds of a soil
organic compounds of a soil
Fills pore spaces in the soil, or forms a thin film around particles
Fills pore spaces, when water isn't there.
type of rock and minerals from which the soil was formed
soil formed from the underlying rock.
soil formed from material not found in the underlying rock, but that was transported
The quantity and type of decomposers will affect the amount of humus (organic matter) in the soil
more time means more complete soil development
Soils develop layers or horizons by 4 processes
addition, transformation, depletion and translocation
adding material to the top of the soil already present.
The continued weathering of soil/rock; soil components being physically and/or chemically broken down into their smallest size possible
particles are carried downward through the soil by water from one area to another
the material moved by depletion is deposited into a lower layer; its moved
__________ & ______________ are basically the beginning and ending of an overall process
Depletion and translocation
particular sequence of soil layers
Organic horizon; formed primarily by addition.
Formed by Transformation
formed by depletion
formed by translocation
lowest soil horizon in a soil profile and formed by Transformation
bedrock first affected
color, texture, Structure,consistence (cohesion), porosity, pH
the A, E & B horizons
size of the soil particles that comprise the soil; an indication of the soils compactness & amount of pore space (porosity) within the soil
sand, clay, silt
used to describe soil NOT based on particle size
ability of a soil to hold water against the downward pull of gravity
lower field capacity
higher field capacity
Platy and Prismatic
higher field capacity
Blocky and Spheroidal
lower field capacity
dark brown to black soils =
high organic content
Reddish or orangeish soils =
high Fe and/or Al oxide content
weakly developed 'B' horizon
clay-rich soils which swell or shrink with moisture
volcanic material, particularly ash
found in a swamp or marsh
Ex of histosols
Okefenokee Swamp of GA
dark, organic-rich A horizon
Mollisols are found where?
grassland soils such as under the great plains (US)
Alfisols are found where?
found under deciduous forests
Spodosols are found where?
coniferous (needle-leaf evergreen pine forests)
warm, wet climate soils with a clayey B horizon (Bt)
Ultisols are found where?
found in the southeastern US
(Bt), rich in clay & hydrated oxides of Fe & Al
Where is oxisol found?
tropical rainforest areas
crytoturbation (frost churning)
The geography of flora (plants) and fauna (animals)
variety of life forms, the ecological roles they perform and the genetic diversity they contain
# of species
1.75 million identified & described
the variety in the genetic makeup among individuals within a species
is the variety among the species or distinct types of organisms found in different habitats/ecosystems.
is the variety of forests, deserts, grasslands, streams, lakes, oceans, coral reefs wetlands & other biological communities or ecosystems.
is the biological & chemical processes or functions such as energy flow & matter cycling needed for the survival of species & biological communities.
Photosynthesis, energy flow, ecological efficiency (food webs), plant and animal succession, geographic dispersal
protons, electrons, neutrons, ions
non-human made ('natural') & human-made
organic (hydrocarbons, carbohydrates, etc) & inorganic
the process of converting CO2 and H2O into carbohydrate and O2 using sunlight as the energy source
Rate of Respiration
by the plant whereby the plant uses some of the energy-food created in photosynthesis. (also involves glycolysis, & the Krebs Cycle)
If increase respiration →
then decrease efficiency of photosynthesis
If increase heat (temperature) →
then increase respiration
If increase water →
then increase CO2 uptake by plant which increases photosynthesis
If increase rate of evapotranspiration →
then decrease efficiency of photosynthesis
result of photosynthesis
creation of Biomass or useful chemical energy (plant & animal)
is formed directly by photosynthesis
is formed indirectly by photosynthesis
highest amounts of Biomass created in
warm, wet areas
Net Primary Productivity (NPP)
is the net photosynthesis for a given Community.
NPP =photosynthesis - respiration
each step or stage of the food web
are organisms that make their own "food"
Ex: Plants or primary producers (1st trophic level)
are the organisms that must consume other organisms to get the energy (food) they need.
Animals (2nd, 3rd, 4th trophic levels)
are the organisms that obtain their energy by breaking down dead organic material. Ex: bacteria, fungi.
is the idea of how well, or the percentage of, energy that is passed along a food chain or web
as energy is moved along a food pathway or chain, _____________
Evolution or Biological Evolution
is the change in genetic makeup of a population, through successive generations.
is the long term, large scale changes that lead to new species (speciation)
is the small genetic changes or mutations (random changes of the DNA in a cell) that occur in a population
Mutations are _______________
random & unpredictable
is a process by which a particular beneficial gene or set of genes is reproduced in succeeding generations more than other genes.
Adaptation or adaptive trait
is any genetically controlled structural,
physiological, or behavioral characteristic that helps an organism survive & reproduce
coloration, mimicry, protective cover, gripping mechanisms
hibernation, chemical protection
migration, various mating behaviors
refers to the total way of life or role of a species in an ecosystem
refers to the physical location in which a species lives
is a group of organisms that resemble one another in appearance, behavior, chemical makeup and processes and genetic structure.
is the formation of 2 or more species from one species
is the geographic separation of a
population of a species into different areas for fairly long times.
is the long-term reproductive separation of members of a sexually reproducing species.
those with a broad ecological niche meaning
they can live in many different habitats; less prone to extinction
Ex of generalist species
humans, flies, cockroaches, mice & rats, raccoons, coyotes
are those with a narrow ecological niche; more prone to extinction
ex of specialist species
pandas, snail kite
refers to organisms that normally live and thrive in a particular ecosystem in which they evolved.
Ex of native species
American bison, American alligator
refers to organisms that have migrated from the
ecosystem in which they evolved, into a different ecosystem, AND the move was facilitated by humans
ex of nonnative species
kudzu, Argentine fire ants
refers to organisms that serve as early warnings
that a community or ecosystem is being degraded
refers to organisms that play roles affecting many other organisms in an ecosystem.
ex of keystone species
wolf, leopard, lion, sharks
is the complete disappearance of a living species from the Earth.
adapted to high temperatures
adapted to low temperatures
are adapted to low moisture conditions
are adapted to high moisture conditions
Deciduous plants drop their leaves as a result of ________________
low water availability and not colder temperatures
temperature and moisture
slope steepness affects
water availability and soil thickness
(need direct sunlight)
north facing slope of mtn
south facing slope of mtn
refers to when 2 or more species utilize the same resources
the process of dividing up resources in an ecosystem, with each organism developing its own ecological niche
often increases the biodiversity of the ecosystem
parasite benefits and the host is often harmed
ex of parasitism
tapeworms, ticks, fleas, mosquitoes
usually both species benefit from the interaction
ex of mutualism
honeybees & flowers
One organism benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed
inhibits growth of another by releasing toxins into the environment.
The study of the distribution of plants & their ecosystems
Water, Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, & Sulfur
Hydrologic (Water) Cycle
evapotranspiration, condensation, precipitation, run-off
Consequences of Water Cycle
Causes soil erosion (adding to erosion in one place & deposition in another)
medium for transporting nutrients
Purification of the water supply.
flow of carbon in the atmosphere;
controlling the temperature at the Earth's surface as
Is removed from the air by producers (plants) to make complex carbohydrates
produced during aerobic respiration
'energy' source in the form of fossil fuels
Oxygen and Hydrogen cycle in a similar fashion to _____________. All three are important elements in ___________________-.
important element for most organisms, BUT cannot be absorbed and used directly as a nutrient by plants and animals;
consists of 4 steps (Nitrogen fixation, Nitrification, Ammonification, Denitrification)
specialized bacteria convert gaseous nitrogen (n2) into ammonia (nh4)
ammonia in soil is converted to nitrite ions ( NO2-) by aerobic bacteria, & nitrate ions ( NO3-) which are taken up by plants.
converting of nitrogen rich organic compounds into ammonia (nh3) and ammonium ions (nh4)
the conversion of ammonia & ammonium ions back into nitrite & nitrate, and then into N2
Phosphorus (P) Cycle
important for plant growth but is a limiting factor in plant growth because of its low abundance in most soils ; If increased amounts of P are introduced into aquatic systems it can lead to increased plant, bacteria, & alga growth, which leads to oxygen depletion
Human activities account for about 33% of all sulfur compounds & 99% of SO2 reaching the atmosphere.
broadest justifiable division of plants and animals
Basic types of biomes
deserts, grasslands, forests
broad-leaf evergreen trees; highest biodiversity of any terrestrial environment
ex of tropical rainforest
Tropical Deciduous Forest
pronounced dry season; so trees lose their leaves during the dry season
tall grassland with widely spaced trees
Vegetation is of the xerophytic or succulent variety
Temperate or Mid-Latitude Grassland
dominated by grasses; areas of short-grass or long-grass; commonly known as prairic
Ex of temperate or mid-latitude grassland
Great Plains (US)
Temperate or Mid-Latitude Deciduous & Mixed Forest
dominated by broadleaf deciduous trees of eastern US; areas of mixed deciduous & needle-leaf evergreen trees; common in SE US
Ex of temperate or mid latitude deciduous and mixed forest
oak, birch, walnut, maple
needleleaf evergreen trees; Pacific northwest coast(US)
Ex of temperate rainforest
redwoods, Douglas fir, Sitka spruce
Mediterranean Scrub or Scrublands
widely spaced evergreen & deciduous trees, and hard or waxy-leaved evergreen bushes; dominated by cyclic fire disturbance
ex of Mediterranean Scrub or Scrublands
chaparral of coastal California
Northern Coniferous Forest
coniferous or cone-bearing, needle-leaf evergreen trees; Boreal Forest in Canada and the Taiga in Siberia.
ex of Northern Coniferous Forest
Spruce, hemlock, fir, pine, larch
dominated by mosses, lichens, sedges (marsh grasses); controlled by permafrost
Plant size is smaller, species diversity lower, food webs simpler, niches fewer and overly complexity of the ecosystem lower in early
successional stages compared to later stages.
sequential development of communities in
a bare area or starting in a condition of bare rock
sequential development of communities in an area in which vegetation has been removed or destroyed but the soil is not destroyed; not starting on bare rock
Ex of secondary succession
an old farm field
Linear autogenic succession
one way succession in which a stage or assemblage is not repeated or skipped
succession in which a stage or assemblage is repeated and/or skipped but with no disturbance
change in species composition brought about by environmental disturbance
ex of allogenic
Animal succession will progress in conjunction with _________________
the plant succession.
The geographical distribution of animal species & populations on the Earth's surface
What controls where an animal lives?
ecological niche or broad habitat and biome
two types of aquatic life zones
saltwater/marine and freshwater
Layers within the water column
surface, middle, & bottom
important environmental factors to consider in aquatic systems
access to sunlight
availability of nutrients
area of high net primary productivity
Sandy & Rocky Beaches/Shores
areas where the waves break onto either a sand or rock beach, but areas that may support a wide variety of plant and animal life.
where freshwater and saltwater mix
areas of vegetation, covered with saltwater
ex of coastal wetland
Salt marshes & Mangrove, & coral reefs
divided into 3 vertical zones: euphotic bathyal
level of high sunlight penetration
level of medium sunlight penetration
the level of very low to no sunlight penetration
can be classified based on their nutrient content & primary productivity.
newly formed, nutrient-poor lakes, and have crystal clear blue or green water
older, nutrient rich with murky brown or green color and poor visibility
mature but not old lakes; Most lakes fall within this category. (MIDDLE)
Zones of a river system
Source, transition, and flood plain zones
narrow, mountain stream section usually
located at higher elevations. (Youthful Stage)
the wider, lower-elevation stream section. (Mature Stage)
Flood Plain Zone
the very wide, gradual sloped river
section and encompasses the area of rivers which empty into the ocean. (Old Age Stage)
habitats which are a mixture of plants and open water
dominated by grasses
dominated by trees and shrubs
EX of swamp
Okefenokee Swamp in Georgia
freshwater depressions carved out by glaciers
Example of Prairie potholes
kettle lakes found in the northern Great Plains
areas on the sides of rivers which receive the
excess water during heavy rains & floods
geographically based delineation of animal assemblages
one of the least diverse realms;
siberian tiger, panda
Paleoarctic & Neoarctic combined
ex: polar bear, walrus, bearded seal
One of the richest and most diverse faunal assemblages
ex: tapir, jaguar, llama, macaws
encompasses SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
Also one of the richest and most varied faunal assemblages
EX: zebra, giraffe, ostrich, gorilla, chimpanzee
lemurs, elephants, shrews
orangutan, Bengal tiger, mongoose
highest diversity of marsupial mammals
EX: kangaroo, wombat, koala; also Monotreme mammals reside here (ex: Duck-billed platypus)
New Zealand Realm
Each island group is often quite unique due to its isolation;
EX: Hawaiian honeycreepers (birds), Galapagos finches
saving single species or saving whole habitats and ecosystems; SLOSS (Single Large Or Several Small)
(carried out by humans); considered the main cause of extinction among plant and animal species today
Introduced or Exotic Species (Alien species)
Most exotic species are generalists and thus often out-compete the native species;
EX: kudzu into southern US, mongoose into Hawaii
Recommended textbook explanations
Environmental Science: Sustaining Your World
G. Tyler Miller, Scott E. Spoolman
Holt Environmental Science (Florida)
Environmental Science: Your World, Your Turn
Jay H. Withgott
Eldon D. Enger
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