to convey a meaning other than the actual meaning of the words
an exaggeration or an understatement
using a part to signify the whole
substituting an attribute of a thing for the thing itself
endowing inanimate objects or abstract concepts with animate characteristics or qualities
establishes a comparison without an explicit verbal cue; the comparison is implied in such a way that the figurative term is substituted for or identified with the literal one
establishes a comparison explicitly with the words "like" or "as"
any object or action that represents something beyond itself; these are less systematic and more openended in their interpretation
a form of narrative in which people, places, and happenings have hidden or symbolic meaning; establishes a strict system of correspondences between deails of action and a pattern of meaning
the arrangement of words in a sentence, phrase, or clause; this refers to the grammatical strucure of words in sentences and the deployment of sentences in longer units throughout the poem; an important element of tone
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