APES - Freidland & Relyea Chapter 8
Essential vocabulary for Friedland and Relyea Environmental Science 2nd Edition - Module 24 and 25.
Terms in this set (61)
innermost zone of Earth's interior, mostly nickel and iron
the layer of Earth above the core, containing magma
molten rock inside the earth
the layer of Earth located in the outer part of the mantle, semi-molten rock
the outermost layer of Earth, including the mantle and crust
In geology, the chemically distinct outermost layer of the lithosphere.
a place where molten material from Earth's mantle reaches the lithosphere
theory that crustal plates on surface are in motion
The sum of the processes that build up and break down the lithosphere.
The process of one crustal plate passing under another.
A vent in Earth's surface that emits gas, ash or molten lava.
Divergent Plate Boundary
An area where tectonic plates move away from each other.
The formation of new ocean crust as the result of magma pushing upward and outward from Earth's mantle to the surface.
Convergent Plate Boundary
An area where plates move toward one another
Transform fault boundary
An area where tectonic plates move sideways past each other
A fracture in rock caused by a movement of Earth's crust
rocks of the lithosphere rupture and unexpectedly slip along fault
geologic activity surrounding a fault zone
point on surface of earth above earthquake
reports magnitude of earthquake, logarthmic
solid chemical substances with uniform crystalline structures
forms new rock by erosion, compression and heat
rock formed from hardened molten materials
rock formed inside earth, small crystals, igneous
rock formed outside earth, large crystals, igneous
cracks formed when rocks cool
rock formed from compression and compaction of eroded rock particles
rock formed from heating and compressing other rocks
mechanical breakdown of rock by water and wind
breakdown of rock by chemical reactions, dissolving of elements
acidic atmospheric moisture that breaks down rocks and minerals
physical removal of rock fragments
accumulation or depositing of eroded material
mixture of geologic, chemical and biological components that support plant growth
rocks and minerals that make up soil and other rocks
lay of the land, surface slope and arrangement of landscape
layers of soil that depend on climate, vegetation and parent material
organic top layer of soil, contains leaf litter
zone of leaching, nutrients removed
subsoil, composed primarily of mineral material, low organics
weathered parent material
determined by percentages of sand, silt, and clay
used to determine soil texture
Cation Exchange Capacity
nutrient holding capacity of soil
measure of the proportion of soil bases to soil acids
loss of some or all of the ability of soils to support growth
average concentration of an element in the crust
concentrated accumulations of minerals from which valuable materials can be extracted
elements with properties that allow them to conduct electricity
the known quantity of the resource that can be economically recovered
removal of strips of soil and rock to expose ore
unwanted waste material from mining
large pit or hole in the ground for easy extraction of materials
miners remove mountaintop to extact materials
process of looking for metals or minerals in stream sediment
The extraction of mineral and energy resources near Earth's surface by first removing the soil, subsoil, and overlying rock strata.
the sum of the processes that build up and break down the lithosphere
Used when desired resource is more than 100m below Earth's surface.
The thin and solid outermost layer of the Earth above the mantle
a large expanse of rock where a fault has occurred.