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Exam 3 Chapter 11
missing: name and examples of muscles
Terms in this set (52)
_______ muscles cause movements
What are fascicles?
muscle cells (muscle fiber) bundles
Name the classifications of skeletal muscles when classified by organization of fascicles.
parallel, convergent, pennate, circular
Describe parallel muscles.
fibers are parallel to the long axis of muscle
Give an example of a parallel muscle.
Describe convergent/triangular muscles.
muscle fiber converge on the attachment site
Give examples of attachment sites that convergent muscles converge on.
tendon, aponeurosis, raphe
What is aponeurosis?
sheets of connective tissue or fiber
What is raphe?
band of collagen fibers
Give an example of a convergent muscle.
Describe pennate muscles.
muscle fibers form an angle with a tendon
What are the types of pennate muscles?
unipennate, bipennate, multipennate
Describe unipennate muscles.
fibers are on one side of tendon
Give an example of a unipennate muscle.
extensor digitorum longus
Describe bipennate muscles.
fibers are on both sides of tendon
Give an example of a bipennate muscle.
rectus femoris muscle
Describe multipennate muscles.
tendon branches within muscle
Give an example of a multipennate muscle.
Describe circular muscles.
open and close to guard entrance of body
Give an example of a circular muscle.
obicularis oris muscle
Is the orbicualris iris muscle aka kissing muscle attached to bone?
What is dr. gardners favorite muscle?
obicularis oris muscle
In the body the _____ are known as levers, mechanically speaking?
rigid moving structure, moves on a fixed point, overcome resistance or load
______ provide applied force or effort.
What are first class levers?
center fulcrum between effort and load, effort and load are balanced
A ______ is an example of a first class lever. (in real world)
What are second class levers?
center load between effort and fulcrum, small force moves a large weight
A _____ is an example of a second class lever. (in real world)
What are third class levers?
center effort is between load and fulcrum, maximizes speed and distance traveled
______ levers are the most common levers in the body
A ______ is an example of a third class lever (in real world)
fixed point of attachment in muscles
moving point of attachment in muscles
What is an agonist?
prime mover i.e. produces a particular movement
What is an antagonist?
opposes movement of an agonist
Give an example of an agonist and antagonist.
biceps brachii, triceps brachii
What is a synergist?
smaller muscles that help a larger agonist by starting motion or stabilizing origin
Give an example of a synergist.
brachioradialis and biceps brachii
What is muscle opposition?
agonists and antagonists work in pairs i.e. when one contracts the other stretches
What are the three ways skeletal muscles are classified?
location in body, origin and insertion, organization of fascicles
What is exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD)?
After intense exercise, there is a lot of muscle damage including torn sarcolemmas and disrupted z discs but this is temporary and skeletal muscle damage is repairable
_____ and _____ increase in blood as they are released from damaged muscle
Myoglobin, creatine kinase
What will reduce EIMD?
involuntary contraction of a single muscle within a large group of muscles
involuntary and often painful muscle contractions
Spasms and cramps can be caused by what?
not enough blood flow to muscles, dehydration, overuse, or abnormal blood electrolyte levels
What is fibrosis (myofibrosis)?
muscle fibers replaced by a lot of connective tissues
What is myosclerosis?
hardening of the muscle caused by calcification
What are myosclerosis and muscle fibrosis a result of?
trauma and metabolic disorders
What are metabolic disorders?
normal processes in the body are disrupted by abnormal chemical reactions
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