17 terms



Terms in this set (...)

performance appraisals
performance appraisals in which work performance is reviewed. Performance appraisals let employees know the level of their job performance as well as any expectations that the organization may have of them. Performance appraisals also generate information for salary adjustments, promotions, transfers, disciplinary actions, and terminations.
In performance appraisals, actual performance, not intent, is evaluated.
None of the manager's actions is as personal as appraising the work performance of others. Because work is an important part of one's identity, people are very sensitive to opinions about how they perform. For this reason, performance appraisal becomes one of the greatest tools an organization has to develop and motivate staff. When used correctly, performance appraisal can encourage staff and increase retention and productivity; in the hands of an inept or inexperienced manager, the appraisal process may discourage and demotivate staff.
Manager in performance appraisal
Because a manager's opinions and judgments are used for far-reaching decisions regarding the employee's work life, they must be determined in an objective, systematic, and formalized manner. Using a formal system of performance review also reduces the appraisal's subjectivity. The more professional a group of employees is, the more complex and sensitive the evaluation process becomes. The skilled leader-manager who uses a formalized system appropriately builds a team approach to patient care.

1. Uses the appraisal process to motivate employees and promote growth
2. Uses appropriate techniques to reduce the anxiety inherent in the appraisal process
3. Involves employees in all aspects of performance appraisal
4. Is self-aware of own biases and prejudices so as to eliminate their influence in the performance appraisal process
5. Develops employee trust by being honest and fair when evaluating performance
6. Encourages the peer review process among professional staff
7. Uses appraisal interviews to facilitate two-way communication
8. Provides ongoing support to employees who are attempting to correct performance deficiencies
9. Uses coaching techniques that promote employee growth in work performance
10. Individualizes performance goals and the appraisal interview as needed to meet the unique needs of a culturally diverse staff

1. Uses a formalized system of performance appraisal
2. Gathers fair and objective data throughout the evaluation period to use in employee's performance appraisals
3. Uses the appraisal process to determine staff education and training needs
4. Bases performance appraisal on documented standards
5. Is as objective as possible in performance appraisal
6. Maintains appropriate documentation of the appraisal process
7. Follows up on identified performance deficiencies
8. Conducts the appraisal interview in a manner that promotes a positive outcome
9. Provides frequent informal feedback on work performance
Factors Influencing Effective Performance Appraisal
Factors Influencing Effective Performance Appraisal

Appraisal should be based on a standard.

Employee should have input into development of the standard.

Employee must know the standard in advance.

Employee must know the sources of data gathered for the appraisal.

Appraiser should be someone who has observed the employee's work.

Appraiser should be someone who the employee trusts and respects.
If employees believe that the appraisal is based on their job description rather than on whether the manager approves of them, they are more likely to view the appraisal as relevant.
Most healthcare organizations, however, use the term performance appraisal, because this term implies an appraisal of how well employees perform the duties of their job as delineated by the job description. An important point to consider, if the appraisal is to have a positive outcome, is how the employee views the appraisal
A performance appraisal wastes time if it is merely an excuse to satisfy regulations and the goal is not employee growth.
If the goal of the performance appraisal is to satisfy the requirements of the organization, then the performance appraisal is a waste of time. On the other hand, if the employee views the appraisal as valuable and valid and growth-producing, it can have many positive effects. Information obtained during the performance appraisal can be used to develop the employee's potential, to assist the employee in overcoming difficulties that he or she has in fulfilling the job's role, to point out strengths of which the employee may not be aware, and to aid the employee in setting goals.
Strategies in performance appraisal
1. The appraiser should develop an awareness of his or her own biases and prejudices. This helps to guard against subjective attitudes and values influencing the appraisal.
2. Consultation should be sought frequently. Another manager should be consulted when a question about personal bias exists and in many other situations. For example, it is very important that new managers solicit assistance and consultation when they complete their first performance appraisals. Even experienced managers may need to consult with others when an employee is having great difficulty fulfilling the duties of the job. Consultation must also be used when employees work several shifts so that information can be obtained from all of the shift supervisors.
3. Data should be gathered appropriately. Many different sources should be consulted about employee performance, and the data gathered needs to reflect the entire time period of the appraisal. Frequently, managers gather data and observe an employee just before completing the appraisal, which gives an inaccurate picture of performance. Because all employees have periods when they are less productive and motivated, data should be gathered systematically and regularly.
Strategies in performance appraisal
4. Accurate record-keeping is another critical part of ensuring accuracy and fairness in the performance appraisal. Information about subordinate performance (both positive and negative) should be recorded and not trusted to memory. The recording of both positive and negative performance behavior throughout the performance period is often called critical incident recording . The manager should make a habit of keeping notes about observations, others' comments, and his or her periodic review of charts and nursing care plans.
REGENCY EFFECT- When ongoing anecdotal notes are not maintained throughout the evaluation period, the appraiser is more apt to experience the recency effect, where recent issues are weighed more heavily than past performance
Taking regular notes on employee performance is a way to avoid the recency effect, which favors appraisal of recent performance over less recent performance during the evaluation period
Strategies in performance appraisal
5. Collected assessments should contain positive examples of growth and achievement and areas where development is needed. Nothing delights employees more than discovering that their immediate supervisor is aware of their growth and accomplishments and can cite specific instances in which good clinical judgment was used. Too frequently, collected data concentrate on negative aspects of performance.
6. Some effort must be made to include the employee's own appraisal of his or her work. Self-appraisal may be performed in several appropriate ways. Employees can be instructed to come to the appraisal interview with some informal thoughts about their performance, or they can work with their managers in completing a joint assessment. One advantage of management by objectives (MBO)—the use of personalized goals to measure individual performance—is the manner in which it involves the employee in assessing his or her work performance and in goal-setting.
7. The appraiser needs to guard against three common pitfalls of assessment: the halo effect, the horns effect, and central tendency. . These appraiser behaviors lead employees to discount the entire assessment of their work. Accel-Team (2010) states that some managers equivocate on performance appraisal ratings for fear that subordinates given a high rating may expect immediate rewards and that employees given low ratings will cause trouble. "In such instances, formal performance evaluation reviews have negative consequences, in that they don't just summarize past performance, they can shape future performance" (Accel-Team, para 7).
8. Finally, reviewers need to guard against a bias known as the Matthew effect. The Matthew Effect is said to occur when employees receive the same appraisal results, year after year. Those who performed well early in their employment are likely to do well. Those who struggled will continue to struggle. Often the Matthew effect is compared to the adage "the rich get richer and the poor get poorer." Thus, past appraisals prejudice an employee's future attempts to improve provides a summary of performance appraisal strategies.
halo effect
The halo effect occurs when the appraiser lets one or two positive aspects of the assessment or behavior of the employee unduly influence all other aspects of the employee's performance
horns effect
The horns effect occurs when the appraiser allows some negative aspects of the employee's performance to influence the assessment to such an extent that other levels of job performance are not accurately recorded.
central tendency
The manager who falls into the central tendency trap is hesitant to risk true assessment and therefore rates all employees as average.
A competence assessment evaluates whether an individual has the knowledge, education, skills, or experience to perform the task, whereas a performance evaluation examines how well that individual actually completes that task.
Since the early 1990s, the Joint Commission (formerly known as the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations [JCAHO]) has been advocating the use of an employee's job description as the standard for performance appraisal. The Joint Commission also suggests that employers must be able to demonstrate that employees know how to plan, implement, and evaluate care specific to the ages of the patients they care for. This continual refinement of critical competencies for professional nursing practice has a tremendous impact on the tools used in the appraisal process. It is important to remember, however, that competence assessments are not the same as performance evaluations. A competence assessment evaluates skill and knowledge; a performance evaluation evaluates execution of a task or tasks.
The effectiveness of a performance appraisal system is only as good as the tools used to create those assessments. An effective competence assessment tool should allow the manager to focus on the priority measures of performance.