5. Collected assessments should contain positive examples of growth and achievement and areas where development is needed. Nothing delights employees more than discovering that their immediate supervisor is aware of their growth and accomplishments and can cite specific instances in which good clinical judgment was used. Too frequently, collected data concentrate on negative aspects of performance.
6. Some effort must be made to include the employee's own appraisal of his or her work. Self-appraisal may be performed in several appropriate ways. Employees can be instructed to come to the appraisal interview with some informal thoughts about their performance, or they can work with their managers in completing a joint assessment. One advantage of management by objectives (MBO)—the use of personalized goals to measure individual performance—is the manner in which it involves the employee in assessing his or her work performance and in goal-setting.
7. The appraiser needs to guard against three common pitfalls of assessment: the halo effect, the horns effect, and central tendency. . These appraiser behaviors lead employees to discount the entire assessment of their work. Accel-Team (2010) states that some managers equivocate on performance appraisal ratings for fear that subordinates given a high rating may expect immediate rewards and that employees given low ratings will cause trouble. "In such instances, formal performance evaluation reviews have negative consequences, in that they don't just summarize past performance, they can shape future performance" (Accel-Team, para 7).
8. Finally, reviewers need to guard against a bias known as the Matthew effect. The Matthew Effect is said to occur when employees receive the same appraisal results, year after year. Those who performed well early in their employment are likely to do well. Those who struggled will continue to struggle. Often the Matthew effect is compared to the adage "the rich get richer and the poor get poorer." Thus, past appraisals prejudice an employee's future attempts to improve provides a summary of performance appraisal strategies.