25 terms

Unit 9: Functional Analysis

Functional Analysis
An experimental approach to assessment in which behavior is observed repeatedly under well-defined test and control conditions, which are characterized by manipulating Antecedents and Consequences to determine their effect on behavior. Seeks to demonstrate a Functional Relationship between problem Behavior and Environmental Events.
Functional Assessment
Any formal method used to identify sources of reinforcement that maintain problem behavior.
Types of Functional Assessment
1. Indirect Assessment (verbal report)
2. Descriptive Assessment (naturalistic observation)
Structured Descriptive Assessment (manip. of antec.)
3. Functional Analysis (experimental manipulation)
Prior to the advent of Functional Assessment, Behavior Modifications focused on....
-Topography of the response and over reliance on Punishment.
-In today's treatments there is more of a focus on Reinforcement.
Functional Relation
-Change in an Independent variable produces orderly and predictable change in the Dependent variable.
(Introduced by Skinner)
Functional Analysis of Behavior Disorders (FA)
-Behavior problems are Learned performances.
-Adaptive and maladaptive behaviors are learned in the same manner.
-The purpose of a Functional Analysis is to identify the source of Reinforcement.
Early Functional Analysis Studies
-Lovaas et al.- SIB increased when followed by sympathetic statements (Sr+).
-Carr et al.- SIB higher under "demand" vs "no demand" condtions.
-Berkson & Mason- Stereotype higher in impoverished environments.
Basic Features of FA
1. Direct Observtion
2. Measurment of behavior under test and Control Conditions.
(Identification of Functional Relations through manipulation of suspected controlling variables)
Functional Analysis Methodology
To test a specific hypothesis about the controlling variables for problem behavior. Esp when Descriptive Analysis does not provide sufficient info for formulating a reasonable hypothesis and when the hypotheses is not producing desired behavior.
Functional Analysis Methodology Forms
1. Durand and Carr Functional Analysis- Emphasis is on the antecedent, especially Establishing Operation during each condition and no consequence for PB. (Ex: Attention delivered at different rates during the test and control conditions) A-B Model
2. Iwata et al Functional Analysis- Emphasis of antecedents and consequences of the behavior during each condition. Created a general model for concurrently assessing the sensitivity of SIB to contingencies of Sr+ and Sr-. A-B-C Functional Assessment Model
Functional Analysis Protocol (Iwata et al)
1. Condition Attention- SD T1, S1- Consequence:Attn Cont: Sr+
2.Condition Demands-SD T2, S2- Consequence:Escape Cont: Sr-
3. Condition Alone- SD S3 -Consequence: N/A Cont: Auto Sr
4. Condition Play- SD T3, S4 -Consequence NCR Cont: Control
Multiple Control
-Multiple tests conditions can be elevated relative to the control.
-Behaviors that are topographically distinct may be maintained by the same function.
Undifferentiated Patterns
-Patterns of problem behavior during a functional analysis. -There is no clear separation between any conditions and the control condition.
Tangible Conditions
-To determine if behavior was actually multiple control or automatic reinforcement.
-You can also use if you strongly suspect maintenance by access to tangibles.
(Limit the use of tangible conditions in FA's).
-To select a tangible item, conduct a DA to identify what is typically delivered following PB.
Session Duration for an FA
10 and 15 min=Perfect (10 min is conservative approach)
15 min=Clear
5 min= Unclear
SD's in a Standard FA
-Recommendation: Include SD's. May produce faster differentiation. In some cases, may be necessary for differentiation.
Ex: Different therapists, rooms, colored shirts, etc.
Clarifying Functional Analysis (FA) Outcomes
1. Use experimental designs to enhance discrimination. (Multielement, Reversal, and Pairwise)
2. Enhance Motivational Operations (Deprivation)
3. Alter Response Measurements (Evaluate and place consequences on only 1 topography)
4. Vary the Control Condition( (Manner in which attempt is delivered FR30 vs continuous, Types of leisure items available-highly preferred toys during attention condition may compete, and Alone as control for negative reinforcement b/c Sd, EO, and contingency are absent).
Multielement Design
Rapidly alternate between conditions
Reversal Design
One condition ran at a time. Less common because of amount of time required.
-Fairly common, more efficient than reversal.
-One test condition alternated with control and may assist in discriminability of conditions.
Managing Risk
1. Interview caregiver to obtain info about severity of behavior.
2. Block SIB and aggression directed to vulnerable organs.
3. For headbanging, use a padded treatment room or padded helmet.
4. Terminate session if SIB produces redness or bleeding until a nurse or physician examines client.
Brief Functional Analysis
-Can shorted the FA for the use in outpatient setting by conducting a BFA with only one session per condition.
-If time permits, the condition with PB is repeated.
(Shows reasonably good correspondence with full FA)
Trial Based Functional Analysis
These are for when you don't have resources for a standard FA or when you are unable to remove the client from ongoing activities.
-Less disruptive to classroom routines.
-Requires fewer staff & less resources.
Idiosyncratic Variables
When you don't get differentiated results from your standard FA, Idiosyncratic variables may be at work.
-Do a descriptive assessment
-Design test and control conditions for your hypothesis.
-a FA is more than just attention, demand, alone, & play.
Selecting Topographies to Reinforce
1. Always graph each typography separate.
2. If necessary, place topographies on extinction until all topographies emerge.