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BIO 1620 U of U final
Terms in this set (138)
Nematocysts are found in what group of organisms?
The tracheal system is found in what group of organisms?
Insects are most closely related to what group of organisms?
Hamilton's Rule helps explain which of the following behaviors?
Mother humpback whales protecting their calves from packs of orcas
What are the key innovations shared by all chordates?
A notochord, a dorsal hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, and a post-anal tail.
How does the tracheal system allow for high levels of activity?
It makes directed flow possible and more efficient than tidal flow because the system is constantly flushed and incoming air is not mixed with used air
Why are crustaceans not considered a monophyletic group?
Insects are part of the group crustaceans
What is a characteristic feature of organisms that display aposematism?
Colors, sounds, odors
In terms of animal behavior, what is the difference between communication and
Animal communication is context driven and happens in response to stimuli.
jelly-like consistency; reduces density which increases buoyancy
Gastric cavity (in cnidarians)
The gastrovascular cavity is the primary organ of digestion and circulation in two major animal phyla: the Cnidaria (including jellyfish and corals) and Platyhelminthes (flatworms)
Polyp Form (Cnidarian)
Generally sessile( don't move, anchored)
bristle-like structure that extends from one end of a cnidocyte and functions as a trigger
Each is produced by a special cell called a cnidoblast and contains a coiled, hollow, usually barbed thread, which quickly turns outward (i.e., is everted) from the capsule upon proper stimulation. The purpose of the thread, which often contains poison, is to ward off enemies or to capture prey.
Dinoflagellates that live within the tissues of reef corals and other marine animals that aid photosynthesis
(snails, clams, squids, octopuses) have a soft body that in many species is protected by a hard shell
One of two distinct clades within the protostomes. It includes annelids and mollusks.
a clade of bilaterally symmetrical animals in which the first opening of the blastula becomes the mouth
Supergroup of protostomes; characterized by periodic molting of their exoskeleton. Include the roundworms and arthropods.
In some lophotrochozoan animals, including brachiopods, a crown of ciliated tentacles that surround the mouth and function in feeding.
a free-swimming, ciliated larva of many worms and some mollusks
Having two germ layers.
has three germ layers: the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm.
echinoderms and chordates
An evolutionary pattern in which many species evolve from a single ancestral species
Underneath the hard shell of the mollusk
what the gastropod walks on
Structure found in the mouths of all mollusks except the bivalves; flexible tongue-like tissue covered with tough, abrasive teeth that point backward
Counter Current Gas Exchange
Blood and water flow in opposite directions. Allows diffusion to continue across entire length of gill filament
The class of the phylum Mollusca that includes clams, oysters, and mussels.
snails and slugs
These have a muscular foot, a shell created by a mantle, and a visceral mass to contain organs. They can also change color
EX: Nautilis, squid, octopus
Sea slugs that lack a shell and have exposed gills
bright conspicuous markings of certain distasteful or poisonous animals, which predators recognize and learn to avoid
a large class of arthropods, including crabs and lobsters
the phylum to which jointed-legged invertebrates belong, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually, and grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development
periodic shedding of the cuticle in arthropods or the outer skin in reptiles
fusion of segments into functional units
Hardened subcomponents of exoskeleton linked by flexible membranes
in arthropods, a visual system composed of multiple lenses; each lens registers light from a small portion of the field of view, creating an image composed of thousands of parts
a lineage of arthropods that includes horseshoe crabs, scorpions, ticks, and spiders
centipedes and millipedes
Any of various predominantly aquatic arthropods of the class Crustacea, including lobsters, crabs, shrimps, and barnacles, characteristically having a segmented body, a chitinous exoskeleton, and paired, jointed limbs.
pleural cavity, chest
hard outer covering or case of certain organisms such as arthropods and turtles
The outermost and thinnest layer of the cuticle. Composed of waxes, cements, protein; responsible for water-proofing the exoskeleton. Found on all external portions of exoskeleton.
Tracheal System in Insects
is highly branched and approaches almost every cell to effect gas exchange
Species with cooperative brood care, reproductive division of labor, and perennial colonies with overlapping generations.
The total effect an individual has on proliferating its genes by producing its own offspring and by providing aid that enables other close relatives to increase the production of their offspring.
self-sacrificing behavior that benefits another individual
behavior that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the future
According to Hamilton's rule, kin selection causes genes to increase in frequency when the genetic relatedness of a recipient to an actor multiplied by the benefit to the recipient is greater than the reproductive cost to the actor
A part or surface, such as a wing, propeller blade, or rudder, whose shape and orientation control stability, direction, lift, thrust, or propulsion.
A slight convex curvature intentionally built into a beam, girder, or truss to compensate for an anticipated deflection.
states that for an inviscid flow, an increase in the speed of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy
A force acting on an object in a fluid in a direction perpendicular to the flow of the fluid
Speed in a given direction
Angle of Attack
The acute angle between the direction of the relative wind and the chord of an airfoil.
A force created from a pressure gradient on opposing surfaces of a spinning body moving through the air
Process by which two species evolve in response to changes in each other
The transfer of pollen from male reproductive structures to female reproductive structures in plants
evolutionary arms race
Predators and prey co-evolve adaptations for prey capture and predator avoidance due to their strong evolutionary influence on one another.
small opening located along the side of the body through which air enters and leaves the body of many terrestrial arthropods
insects like beetles, flies and moths, have life cycles that include internal wing development during a pupal stage. this type of metamorphosis is called:
Insects like grasshoppers, roaches and bugs have life cycles that include external wing development. This type of metamorphosis is called:
alteration of the composition or structure of a rock by heat, pressure, or other natural agency.
A chordate without a backbone, represented by lancelets, tiny marine animals.
A chordate without a backbone, commonly called a tunicate, a sessile marine animal.
Subphylum in which man is classified
A rod of tough, flexible material that runs the length of a creature's body, providing the majority of its support
dorsal hollow nerve cord
nerve cord found in all chordates that forms the spinal cord and brain
consists of muscle tissue and lies behind the posterior opening of the digestive tract
Slits used for filter feeding in primitive chordates and have been adapted for other functions in more highly evolved chordates; a common feature of all chordates.
in chordates, it secrets mucus that traps particles, and is a precursor to the thyroid gland
ciliated groove along the dorsal side of the inside of the pharynx in some plankton-feeding early chordates, such as Amphioxus
Within the annelids, as with the arthropods, the body wall, nervous system, kidneys, muscles and body cavity are generally segmented
Paired blocks of mesoderm just lateral to the notochord of a vertebrate embryo.
Members of the subphylum Urochordata, sessile marine chordates that lack a backbone.
A band of cells along the border where the neural tube pinches off from the ectoderm; the cells migrate to various parts of the embryo and form the pigment cells in the skin, bones of the skull, the teeth, the adrenal glands, and parts of the peripheral nervous system.
Placodes that develop into olfactory organ for the sensation of smell located in mature nose
lateral line system
sensitive receptor system that enables fish to detect gentle currents and vibrations in the water
the biological ability to perceive natural electrical stimuli
The generation of extra copies of a gene in a genome over evolutionary time. A mechanism by which genomes can acquire new functions.
slender, soft bodied vertebrates with prominent eyes that were controlled by numerous muscles and armored; extinct
large apex predator oceanic fishes, such as bluefin tuna and oceanic sharks. They are usually agile swimmers with streamlined bodies, capable of sustained cruising on long-distance migrations.
a force that opposes the motion of an object through a fluid
hydrodynamic drag on an organism caused by its cross-sectional area
the retarding force produced by an object sliding past the molecules of the fluid it is moving through. The amount of friction depends upon the amount of surface, the roughness of the surface, the density of the fluid and the viscosity of the fluid and the characteristics of the flow (laminar or turbulent).
The reptilian group that includes crocodiles, alligators, dinosaurs, and birds.
have single opning in the outer layer of the skull just behind eye socket
Process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar environments
mollusks have a well-developed circulatory system that includes one
Any action by which an animal expends energy or assumes risks to benefit its offspring (e.g., nest-building, feeding of young, defense).
Innate and learned behavior
innate behavior is genetic, learned behavior is observational
A process through which you send messages to and receive messages from others.
our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
signals that tell your mind and body how to react
Evaluates alternate strategies when outcome depends not only on each individual's strategy but also that of others.
a situation in which an economic gain by one country results in an economic loss by another
Tragedy of the Commons
a parable that illustrates why common resources are used more than is desirable from the standpoint of society as a whole
organisms from an ancestor with posterior flagellum (includes fungi, animals, and some protists)
geologic period (850-630 million years ago) characterized by a very cold global climate
Hypothesis that proposes that the Earth was entirely covered by ice in part of the Cryogenian period of the Proterozoic eon, and perhaps at other times in the history of Earth
geological period (630-542 million years ago) when the oldest definite multicellular organisms with tissues evolved
(570-510 million years ago). No life on land, but many kinds of sea animals existed.
a multicellular organism whose mouth develops from a primary embryonic opening, such as an annelid, mollusk, or arthropod
echinoderms and chordates
Model that uses DNA comparisons to estimate the length of time that two species have been evolving independently
a group of free-living unicellular and colonial flagellate eukaryotes considered to be the closest living relatives of the animals.
A type of fossil that provides evidence of the activities of ancient organisms
A change in the allele frequency of a population as a result of chance events rather than natural selection.
the terminal branches of a lineage arising from a stem taxon. A single lineage may have more than one crown taxon
the earliest representation of a lineage
Operational environment in which host country military and law enforcement agencies have control as well as the intent and capability to assist operations that a unit intends to conduct
An evolutionary pattern in which many species evolve from a single ancestral species
The hollow ball of cells marking the end stage of cleavage during early embryonic development
A burst of evolutionary origins when most of the major body plans of animals appeared in a relatively brief time in geologic history; recorded in the fossil record about 545 to 525 million years ago.
Canadian fossil formation that contains Cambrian soft-bodied organisms as well as organisms with hard parts.
A common animal that lived in Earth's oceans during the Paleozoic Era. They are most closely related to the modern Horseshoe Crab.
rock formed when glacial till is lithified
the middle layer of an embryo in early development, between the endoderm and ectoderm.
Genes that determine basic features of where a body part is.
each of several hierarchical levels in an ecosystem, comprising organisms that share the same function in the food chain and the same nutritional relationship to the primary sources of energy.
An environment containing low levels of nutrients, particularly nutrients that support microbial growth.
The sponge loop hypothesis proposes that sponges on coral reefs absorb the large quantities of dissolved organic carbon (molecules such as carbohydrates) that are released by seaweeds and corals and return it to the reef as particles in the form of living and dead cells, or other cellular debris.
Dead organic matter
invertebrates that have stinging cells and take food into a central body cavity
radial vs bilateral symmetry
R= lines of symmetry that go through a Center always point (ex: anemone)
B= Mirror image (Ex: butterfly and humans)
A fluid skeleton in many soft-bodied invertebrates, including annelids, that allows an organism to change shape but not volume.
pressure that must be applied to prevent osmotic movement across a selectively permeable membrane
A relationship between two organisms in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected
A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is harmed
A relationship between two species in which both species benefit
interaction in which one animal (the herbivore) feeds on producers (such as plants)
the struggle between organisms to survive in a habitat with limited resources
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