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IPC Chapter 16 TEST
Terms in this set (92)
What is heat?
the transfer of thermal energy from one object to another because of a temperature difference
Heat flows spontaneously from __________ objects to __________ objects
What is temperature?
a measure of how hot or cold an object is compared to a reference point
What are the reference points on a Celsius scale?
freezing and boiling
What is a reference point on the Kelvin scale?
What is absolute zero?
a temperature of zero kelvins
___________ is related to the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object due to their random motions through space
What happens to particles in an object as it heats up?
they move fsater
What is thermal energy?
the total potential and kinetic energy related to the motion of all the particles in an object
What three things does thermal energy depend on?
mass, temperature, and phase
What is thermal expansion?
an increase in the volume of a material due to a temperature increase
When does thermal expansion occur?
when particles move farther apart as temperature increases
What is specific heat?
the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of a material by one degrees celcius
What is the formula for heat?
mass x change in temperature x specific heat
What letter represents heat?
What is the unit for temperature?
What is the unit for mass?
What is the unit for heat?
What is a calorimeter?
an instrument used to measure changes in thermal energy
What is conduction?
the transfer of thermal energy with no overall transfer of matter
Why is conduction in gases slower in liquids than in solids?
because the particles in gas collide less often
What is a thermal conductor?
a material that conducts thermal energy well
Copper and aluminum are good _______________
When a drill is used to bore a hold in an object, _____________
friction causes the object to heat up
Why does liquid rise in a thermometer?
To heat 1 g of water by 1 degrees Celsius requires ______________
What is a thermal insulator?
a material that conducts thermal energy poorly
Air is an example of _______________
a thermal insulator
What is convection?
the transfer of thermal energy when particles of a fluid move from one place to anoher
What is convection current?
when a fluid circulates in a loop as it alternately heats up and cools down
____________ are important in many natural cycles, such as ocean currents, weather systems and movements of hot rock in Earth's interior
An example of convection current is air circulating in an _____________
What is radiation?
the transfer of thermal energy by waves moving through space
All objects radiate ______________
What is thermodynamics?
the study of conversions between thermal energy and other forms of energy
What is the first law of thermodynamics?
energy is conserved
What is the second law of thermodynamics?
thermal energy can flow from colder objects to hotter objects only if work is done
What is the third law of thermodynamics?
absolute zero cannot be reached
What is waste heat?
thermal energy that is not converted into work
What is a heat engine?
any device that converts heat into work
A heat engine must discharge some ______________ in order to do work
What are the two main types of heat engines?
internal combustion engine, external combustion engine
What is an internal combustion engine?
an engine in which fuel burns inside the engine
A car is an example of an _________________
internal combustion engine
What is an external combustion engine?
an engine that burns fuel outside the engine
A steam engine is an example of an _________________
external combustion engine
Who invented the steam engine?
Who improved the steam engine?
What are the 4 types of heating systems?
hot water heating, steam heating, electric baseboard heating, forced air heating
________________ uses radiators to transfer thermal energy
Hot water heating
The hot water transfers thermal energy to the radiator by ____________
_______________ is similar to hot water heating but steam is used instead of hot water
The transfer of heat from the steam-heated radiator to the room occurs by _____________ and ____________
______________ uses fans to circulate warm air through ducts to the rooms of a building
forced air heating
What is a heat pump?
a device that reverses the normal flow of thermal energy
Most cooling systems such as refrigerators and air conditioners are __________
What are the two cooling systems?
refrigerators, air conditioners
______________ is a fluid that vaporizes and condenses inside the tubing of a heat pump
What is the first step in an endothermic and exothermic reactions?
energy must be supplied to break chemical bonds
What is the second step in endothermic and exothermic reactions?
energy is released when new chemical bonds are made
A reaction is _____________ is more energy is released than supplied
A reaction is _________ if more energy is supplied than released
What is an endothermic process?
a change that requires (or absorbs) heat
Photosynthesis is an _______________ reaction
In an ____________ reaction heat is taken in and the temperature of the substance drops
What is an exothermic process?
a change that releases heat
In an __________ reaction, heat is given off and the temperature of the substance rises
Combustion of fuels, yeast, and hydrogen peroxide are all examples of ____________ reactions
What are the 3 types of thermal energy transfer?
convection, conduction, and radiation
Slower particles collide less often and exert less force, so gas pressure decreases and the balloon contracts. This is called _______________
_____________ challenged the concept of heat by experimenting with canons
The best thermal insulators _____________
Energy added to a system ___________
does work or increases thermal energy
A blow dryer transfers thermal energy mainly by _______________
All engines operate at less than 100 percent efficiency because they __________
What occurs just before ignition?
Heat is the transfer of thermal energy from one object to another as the result of a difference in ________________
Friction produces __________
_________ is a fluid that flows between particles of matter
Is the following sentence true or false: Two substances can be the same temperature and have different thermal energies?
True or False: Thermal contraction occurs when matter is heated, because particles of matter tend to move closer together as temperature increases
What device is used to measure changes in thermal energy?
True or False: A calorimeter uses the principle that heat flows from a hotter object to a colder object until both reach the same temperature
True or False: Conduction is faster in metals than in other solids because metals have free electrons that transfer thermal energy
____________ is transferred without the transfer of matter
In most solids, __________ takes place as particles vibrate in place
When a fluid circulates in a loop as it alternately heats up and cools down a ______________ occurs
___________ is transferred by waves
The farther away you are from a radiating object, _______________________
the less radiation you recieve
True or False: Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be converted into different forms
True or False: Scientists have created a heat engine with 100 percent efficiency by reducing the temperature of the outside enviornment to absolute zero
True or False: Matter can be cooled to absolute zero
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