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AP Human Geography Unit 6 Vocab

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Cultural Convergence
is the change in culture that occurs as diffusion of ideas and technology increases. An example is the culture of LDC's becoming more like that of their former colonial power (an MDC)
Dependency Theory
The idea that there is a center of wealthy states and a periphery o fpoorer, less developed states that depend on the wealthier ones. This is significant bevause it explains many of the complicated relationships between national governments.
Development
the improvment in material conditions of a place as a result of diffusion of technology and knowledge
Energy Consumption
an index of development
Foreign Direct Investment
invesment in the economies of LCDs by transnational corporations based on MDCs
Gender
classification of one as male or female
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
GDP is hte total market value of all final goods and services produced within a country. Importance: Measures the size an dprosperity of an economy.
Gross National Product (GNP)
Measures national income and output. Importance: measures size of an economy.
Human Development Index
Measures life expectancy, literacy, education, GDP per captia, etc. Importance: Shows standard of living and well being.
Levels of Development
countries are classified into include MDCs (more developed countries) and LDCs (less developed countries)
Agricultural Labor Force
It refers to the percentage of people nfrom a country that are economically active in agriculture, hunting, forestry, or fishing. It is signifcant bevasuse it not only provides the raw statistic but also bevause it can b eused to look at other factors that have a strong correlation with the percentage of people involved with agriculture mainly related to standards of living.
Calorie Consumption
a percentage of dailey requirment is an important index of development
Physical Quality of Life Index
Measurement of literacy, infant mortality, and life expectancy weighted on a 0 to 100 scale, doesn't include GNP. Importance: Measurement of well being.
Neocolonialism
International economic arrangements where colonial powers maintain control of colonies and dependencies after WWII.
Purchasing Power Parity
Equilibrium exchange rate between currencies to equalizetheir purchasing power. Importance: Shows economic prosperity and creates equzlity in trade.
Technology Gap
.the differencein technologies used and/or developed in two companies, countries, ethnic groups...
Technology Transfer
process by which existing knowledge, facilities, or capabilites developed inder federal research and development funding are utioized t ofufill public and private needs
Third World
countries in the developing world independent of their political status
World Systems Theory/Core-Periphery Model
refers to perspective that seeks to explain the dynamics of the "capitalist world economy" as a "total social system"
Acid Rain
Rain that has become acidic after contact with the atmospheric gases
Agglomeration
particles sticking together into a small mass due to moisture, static charge, chemical or mechanical binding
Agglomeration Economies
economies of scale resulting from the concentration of people and production in urban areas
Air Pollution
the pressence of noxious substances in the air that we breathe
Aluminum Industry
they haveto comply to clean air rules while still trying to make the most money possible in their production
Assembly Line Production/Fordism
The Process where each individual or maschine is given a specific job on a lager product to produce more items at one time
Bid Rent Theory
a goegraphical theory thatrefers to how the price and demand on land changes as the distance towards the CBD
Break-of-Bulk Point
a maritime term for extaction of a portion of the cargo of a ship or the begining of the unloading process from the ship's hold
Canadian Industrial Heartland
Canada has a sizable manufacturing sector, centred in Central Canada, with the automobile industry especially important.
Carrier Efficiency
air shipment is the quickest form but most expensive way shipping but by ship is the cheapest way and can carry the most over a long distance
Comparative Advantage
the ability of an individual, firm, or country to produce a good or service at a lower opportunity cost than other producers.
Cumulative Causation
the process whereby when one or two countries or markets or industries get ahead of others
Deglomeration
Seperation o findustrial ties opposite of Agglomeration. Importance: Important to understanding why the economy does what it does.
Deindustrialization
When a country, formerly industrial, reverts to a stage of dependency.
Economic Sectors
Three Main Secotrys Primary, Sescondary and Tertiary describes the main areas at which people work in the economy.
Economies of Scale
Characterizes a production process in which an increase in the scale of the firm causes a decrease in the long run average cost of each unit. Importance is that it renders competition in the market.
Ecotourism
Is a form of tourism that appeals to hte ecologicallyu and socially conscious individuals. Importance is that helps some countries thrive.
Energy Resources
The total amount of non-renewable resources in our world. Importance is finding alternative energy.
Entrepot
Is a trading post where merchandise can be imported and exported without paying import duties, alternative energy.
Export Processing Zone (EPZ)
One or more areas of a country where tariffs and quotas...
Fixed costs
Expenses that do not change in proportion to the activity of a business.
Footloose Industry
is a general term for an industry that can be placed and located at any location without affect from factors such as resources or transport.
Four Tigers
Refers to hte economies of Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, and South Korea. Important in stabilizing asian industry.
Greenhouse Effect
Is a process in which the emission of infrared radiation by the atmosphere warms a planet's surface.
Growth Poles
Growth of the economy is not uniform over the entire region. Important to economist growth theories.
Heartland
Refers to hte central areas of a country. Significant because it is a key term when discussing strategy and importance in the world.
Rimland
Refers to the land surrounding the central area. Important because it is a key term when discussing strategy and importance in the world.
Industrial Location Theory
The theory that profit of a business is maximized by choosing a location where production costs are lowest as well as land is cheapest and the distance from the market is the smallest. This is important to geography because it is used to describe why many businesses choose their locations in a given area and is key for describing complicated dynamics of industry.
Industrial Regions (Place)
Based on environmental considerations and the cost effectiveness of the location for the Industry
Industrial Regions (Fuel Source)
a material used to produce heat or power by burning. Important when considering a industry's location.
Industrial Regions (Characteristics)
Industrial region or industrial area refers to a region with extremely dense industry. It is usually heavily urbanized.
Industrial Revolution
A period in the 18th and 19th century where great advances were made in agriculture, manufacturing, and transportation in Britain, which eventually spread throughout theworld causing global industrialization. It is important in geogrphy because it is one of hte most significant deveolpments in industrialization and helps explain how we got to where we are today.
Industry
The segment of a nations economy that is concerned iwth the production of goods and services. It is important to geography bevause it is one of hte three main types of business, along with agriculture and goods and services.
Infrastructure
A collective term that refers to public works such as a system of highways, railroads, and airportsw. It is important to geography bevause it describes varioussystems that play key roles in bigger topics, such as transportation's influence on idustrial development patterns.
International Division of Labor
The cooperation of specialized tasks to produce one product more efficiently It is significant bevause it deals with a type of production used in idustry.
Labor-Intensive
The relative proportion of labor used in production compared in capital. It is key in geography bevause it isused to describethe amoutn of wrok to each employee which speaks to the overall efficiency of a business.
Least-cost Location
The location where a balance between lowest land costs and lowest transportation costs is achieved. It is important because it explainsthe location of many businesses, particularly those in industry.
Major Manufacturing Regions
Eastern United States, Mexico, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and East Asia. These regions are hte leaders in inudstry and therefore significant to geography.
Manufacturing Exports
The products that are produced and shipped to another country. This is very common as production costs in other countries is often cheaper, which explains why a country would import a product rather than produce it themselves.
Industrial Parks
areas communities have set aside for industrial uses
Shared Services
consolidates all individuals from all business units into a single organization, run centrally, and utilized by each business unit.
Zoning
dividing an area into zones or sections reserved for different purposes such as residence and business and manufacturing etc
Transportation
the moving of goods or people from one place to another.
Taxes
fees for the support of government required to be paid by people and businesses.
Environmental Considerations
weather, temperature, altitude, air pollution, playing surface, athletic facilities management
Market Orientation
The tendency of an economic activity to locate close to its market; a reflection of large and variable distribution costs.
Multiplier Effect
An effect in economics in which an increase in spending produces an increase in national income and consumption greater than the initial amount spent.
NAFTA
North American Free Trade Agreement between USA, Mexico, & Canada, effective 1/1/1994. Importance: Largest trade block in the world in terms of combined GDP.
Outsourcing
Transfer o fbusiness components to a third party for reasons such as cheaper labor and easier access to labor.
Ozone Depletion
The breakdown of the ozone layer caused by chlorofluorocarbon.
Plant Location (Supplies "just in time" Delivery)
Minimizes in-process inventory by manufacturingon demand using quick communication and transportation. Importance: Very effective method of production, more so than Henry Ford's method.
Postindustrial
Economic transition from a manufacturing based economy to a service based economy. Importance: A significant stage in a country's development.
Refrigeration
A consistent cold temperature used to preserve perishable itemsduring transportation and storage. Importance: Allows for longer travel distance in trade and availability to distant markets, increasing potential demand.
Resource Crisis
Future shortages of non-renewable energy sources with increased demand, solvable by use of renewable energy. Importance: Worldwisde lack of resource in extremely high demand.
Resource Orientation
tendency for an industry or other type of economic activity to locate close to its resources (Ex. coal industry)
Special Economic Zones (China)
these include the Pudong District, Xiamen, Shantou, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, and the Hainan Province (all of these are coastal areas providing vital economic advantages for the country of China)
Specialized Economic Zones
Region with economic laws that are more liberal than the country's typical economic laws, such as Free Trade Zonbes, Export Processing Zones, ect. Importance: increases foreign investment.
Substitution Principle
Substitution of a product, service or process to another that is more efficient and beneficial while retaining the same functionality, such as bettering the environment.
Threshold/Range
Market area of a service.
Time Space Compression
Overcoming of special barriers, especially in technology such as telephone, the internet, transportation, etc.
Topocide
Deliberate killing of a place throughinddustrial expansion and change so its landscape is destroyed.
Trade
Exchange between two or more parties of one entity or another.
Transnational Corporation
A corporation delivering serices to at least two countries.
Ubiquitous
Something's ability to be found anywhere at any time.
Variable Costs
Expenses that change in proportion to the activity and prospertity of a company.
Weight-Gaining
A product that, during production, gains mass. Examples: pop, cars, computers, etc.
Weight-Losing
A product that, druing production loses mass. Examples: sugar, coffee, lumber.
World Cities
Cities that directly and significantly effect global affairs through socio-economic means, culture, and politics.
Fordism
principles for mass production based on assembly-line techniques, scientific management, mass consumption based on higher wages, and sophisticated advertising techniques
Gross National Income (GNI)
The total value of goods and services produced by a country per year plus net income earned abroad by its nationals; formerly called "gross national product."
Just-In-Time Production
Process that redefines and simplifies manufacturing by reducing inventory levels and delivering raw materials just when they are needed on the production line
Maquiladora
Factories built by U.S. companies in Mexico near the U.S. border, to take advantage of much cheaper labor costs in Mexico.
Transferability
The costs involved in moving goods from one place to another
Big Box Stores
presents a large selection of goods in a selling space typically oversize for its merchandise category. A wedding dress superstore at 12,000 square ft. is a big box.
Complimentary
A product given with no charge.