EES Chapter 14: Study Guide
Terms in this set (35)
Barrier islands are associated with an erosional coastline. T/F
A particle of water in a wave moves in a circular orbit as the wave passes; the particle returns to its original position after the wave has passed. T/F
Waves usually come straight into shore. T/F
Longshore currents transport most of the beach sand parallel to the shoreline. T/F
Wave orbits decrease in size until motion is gone at a depth equal to twice wavelength. T/F
Gravel beaches are found on coasts with low wave energy. T/F
Gravel beaches have a steeper face slope than sand beaches. T/F
Jetties and groins work because they enhance the flow of sand along a beach. T/F
An irregular coast with bays separated by headlands can be straightened by plate tectonic forces. T/F
A baymouth bar is a ridge of sediment that cuts a bay off from the open ocean. T/F
Estuaries, such as Chesapeake Bay, are drowned glacial-cut valleys. T/F
Winter beaches build up underwater sandbars that serve as a storage facility for next summer's sand supply. T/F
A fiord is a glacially-cut valley flooded by rising sea level. T/F
Ordinary ocean waves are created by the interaction of the ____ and ____.
Waves breaking along the shore are known as ____.
A _____ is a structure built to absorb the force of large, offshore breaking waves and provide quiet water near shore.
A ___ encompasses all land near the sea, including the beach and a strip of land inland from it.
Wave erosion of headlands produces ____, steep slopes that retreat inland by mass wasting as wave erosion undercuts them.
During what season can you find the best beaches?
The vertical distance between the crest and the trough of a wave is called the ____.
Waves break because:
height increases while length decreases
The upper part of a beach landward of the high tide line is the _____.
Drowned coasts may be marked by ___, glacially cut valleys flooded by rising sea level.
The bending of waves as they enter shallow water is called _____.
U.S. coasts with gently sloping plains, such as those along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico, are ____.
Tidal deltas are usually associated with _________.
gaps in barrier island systems
Coastal straightening occurs because of ____.
wave erosion of headlands and deposition in bays
The steepest part of a beach is the ____.
For the past 3000 years sea level has been rising at a rate of _______.
4 cm per century
_____ is the movement of sand parallel to the shore.
The net effect of wave ____ is to move sand in a series of arcs along the beach face.
run up and return
The energy that moves sand along a beach ultimately comes from ____.
The horizontal distance between two wave crests is called the ______.
_____ carry fine-grained sediments out of the surf zone into deeper water.
The sea level rise in the past 15,000 years is due to ____.