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AP HG Ch.14 study guide Resource Issues
Terms in this set (156)
What doesn't contain major oil-producing zones
Gulf of California.
What can be categorized as a primary activity?
Water run-off is likely to be greatest in what settings?
What regions have the fewest freshwater resources per capita?
Middle East and North Africa
When compared to fossil fuels, alternative energy sources generally
are more expensive.
What is not examples of renewable energy sources
What former Soviet nations controls much of the agricultural production and coal deposits formerly held by the USSR?
Anthropocentrism is the concept that
humans are the most important and dominant organism on the earth.
What doesn't contain major oil-producing zones
Gulf of California
The country with the largest oil reserves in the world is
The country with the largest coal reserves in the world is
What is the major drawback to using wind power to supply energy?
The considerable installation costs
What country possesses the greatest natural gas reserves?
This cartel, established in 1960, is the primary group in the world setting oil prices.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
Most of the ethanol (a form of biomass) produced in the United States comes from what biodegradable commodity?
What is the major drawback to burning lignite coal?
It cannot produce enough heat for many blast furnaces.
Large coal deposits are concentrated in the:
mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere.
Primary commodities account for what percentage of growth in dollar value of international trade?
cannot be replaced by any natural processes within our lifetimes.
Whether a material is considered to be a resource is a function of:
A usable resource is:
the amount ofthe reserves currently being used by humans.
The Middle Eastern countries have what percentage of the world's proven petroleum reserves?
The nearly perfect energy source is:
Almost 90% of the world's annual fish supply comes from:
the continental shelf.
The production of most metallic minerals is not affected by each what:
weight of the ore.
The developing countries account for less than what percentage of industrial wood production?
Usable mineral deposits' distribution was determined by:
geologic processes that concentrated deposits.
What region has the largest percent of the world's petroleum reserves?
What is not true of fossil fuels
the wealthiest countries have the greatest deposits of fossil fuels.
What form of transportation would be most effective in delivering coal from a mine in Casper, Wyoming to a plant creating electricity in Houston, Texas?
Based on impact studies by climatologists and geographers what is not a likely impact of global warming?
The most negatively impacted countries are likely to be highly developed countries of Europe and North America.
Acid rain most impacts what region?
What is not negative impacts of acid rain
destruction of the ozone layer.
Natural resources generally fall into two basic categories, which is
renewable and nonrenewable.
Nonrenewable resources are those that humans use at a rate by what
nature cannot replenish them in a reasonable time period.
What is not renewable natural resources of energy
The environmental concern of burning fossil fuels is that they
contribute to air pollution, contribute to the amount of green house gases in the atmosphere, and contribute to acid rain deposition.
What two countries have the largest known reserves of coal in the world?
China and United States.
The United States imports most of its petroleum from
Mexico and Canada.
The United States produced most of its own oil up until the
What is/are the drawback(s) to hydro electricity?
It can displace large populations of citizens, It prevents the annual flooding in river valleys, and It floods upstream areas, what displaces wildlife and alters the environment.
Acid rain deposition is most severe in what region of the world:
Northern New England and New York State, Southeastern Canada, and Western Europe.
Most electricity in the United States is produced from
the burning of coal.
What European country relies the most on nuclear power for electricity generation?
The single most critical concern regarding the disposal of radioactive wastes is:
no satisfactory method of disposal has yet been devised.
What does not place growing demands on water supplies?
One possible effect of global warming would be:
coastal wetlands would be submerged.
The "quiet crisis" is the term given to the:
depletion of agricultural soil through erosion.
The icebox effect may be created by:
The continent at the greatest risk of desertification is:
What activity contributes to water pollution more than any other throughout the world?
Depletion of the earth's ozone layer is not expected to lead what consequences
an increase in sea temperatures causing melting of the polar ice caps.
With respect to the earth as a system, the hydrosphere is concerned with:
Acid rain is primarily a problem of:
The international shipping of hazardous wastes is:
The greenhouse effect is related most closely to:
increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide.
The agricultural practice of terracing:
decreases soil erosion.
Acid rain contamination in New England is blamed primarily on:
midwestern coal-burning power stations and industries.
Fresh water accounts for approximately what percentage of total water available?
less than 1
Acid rain has not been linked to what:
the depletion of the earth's ozone layer.
What percentage of municipal solid waste is disposed of in landfills?
An example of a high-level hazardous waste is:
spent nuclear power reactor fuel.
What statement about solid waste is not correct?
In North America, the average person produces six pounds of waste per day.
Acid rain has the greatest potential for damage to surface water in the United States in:
What statement concerning global warming is not true:
the seven warmest years between 1880 and 1991 occurred before 1945.
Global warming and climatic change would most adversely affect:
developing countries highly dependent on agriculture.
The removal of tropical forests is not related to what global concerns :
their ability to absorb the chemicals that contribute to depletion of the ozone layer.
The combination of decreasing yields, increased stream sediment loads, and downstream deposition of silt on a global basis is evidence of:
On a global basis, the areas with the highest moisture deficits are:
North Africa, the Middle East, Australia, and the southwestern United States.
Energy is defined as
the capacity to do work.
A substance in the physical environment that has value to human beings is
What group consumes one-fourth of the world's energy, while only making up one-twentieth of Earth's population?
In recent years the World Bank and other international development agencies have rejected the concept of sustainable development.
Humans have not yet "discovered" most of Earth's species.
Conservation is the maintenance of resources in their condition, with as little human impact as possible.
Prior to the Industrial Revolution, humans relied mostly on what kind of power?
Before the Industrial Revolution, the most important source of fuel was
Fossil fuels are
finite resources, unevenly distributed around the world, and plants and animals buried millions of years ago.
The most common energy source for home heat and hot water is
The global energy issue derives in part from the fact that fossil fuels
were formed in the far distant past.
Most nonrenewable energy sources are
formed very slowly.
The amount of energy in fields not yet identified but thought to exist is a
Unconventional sources of oil like shales and tar sandstone are
accessible by damaging the environment.
Saudi Arabia has relatively large proven reserves of
The United States has relatively large proven reserves of
China has relatively large proven reserves of
The most dramatic example of a country that consumes more energy than it produces is
To protest the United States's support for Israel in its 1973 war against Egypt, Jordan, and Syria, during the winter of 1973-74, OPEC members
refused to sell petroleum to the United States.
What is a nonmetallic mineral used for fertilizer?
phosphorus, sulfur, and potassium
Greater dependence on coal is likely to occur by
expanding use of electricity.
North Americans are less dependent than Europeans on nuclear energy primarily because of
more abundant coal reserves.
During the Industrial Revolution MDCs converted from
animate power to inanimate power.
generally consume more fuel than they produce, which causes the need for energy import and have historically possessed a disproportionately high percentage of the world's fossil fuel reserves.
What is a renewable energy source?
geothermal and fusion
Mexico City's air pollution problem is caused by
surrounding mountains that trap polluted air, the burning of fossil fuel from roughly 8 million vehicles and 50,000 factories, and a lack of oxygen at high altitude that results in less efficient burning of fossil fuels.
A discharge constitutes pollution if the level is
greater than the environmental capacity.
Air pollution is
a concentration of a trace substance at a level greater than occurs in average air.
The combination of sulfur oxide with oxygen and water produces
A condition in what sunlight causes hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides to react in the atmosphere produces
The way of life on small island nations like Tuvalu are threatened from global warming because
they are comprised of coral that only lives in a narrow range of temperatures and water levels are rising high enough to cover large portions of the island that are at or just above sea level.
The increase in Earth's temperature caused by carbon dioxide trapping radiation is
the greenhouse effect.
Water polluted by a farmer's poor irrigation control of fertilized lands is an example of
nonpoint source pollution.
The source of air pollution most responsible for damaging trees in Ontario, Canada, and Germany's Black Forest is
The most significant source of air pollution caused by automobiles is
A gas threatening Earth's ozone layer is
Steel and chemical industries are major water polluters primarily because they
generate large amounts of wastewater.
The disappearance of the Aral Sea is attributed to
the diversion of water for irrigation.
Polluted water threatens the survival of aquatic plants and animals in part by
enriching the water with excessive levels of nutrients.
What is a hazardous waste?
heavy metals, PCB oils, and cyanides
In contrast to air and water pollution, solid waste pollution is reduced through
concentrating rather than dispersing waste.
The greatest side benefit to incinerating solid waste is
production of electricity.
Elaborate safety measures must be taken to store nuclear waste primarily because the waste is
The breeder reactor was invented to address the problem that nuclear power
depends on scarce uranium.
is not considered a renewable resource.
A greenhouse is a good example of a building heated by
passive solar energy.
Solar energy is more expensive than other forms of energy for most consumers primarily because
installation costs or manufacturing costs are high.
The leading forms of renewable energy used in the world today are
biomass and hydropower.
One strategy for the reduction of solid waste pollution is the
separation of different types of trash.
A strategy for reducing the amount of waste discharged includes
changing the mix of inputs increasing the product to waste ratio.
An alternative to reducing discharges into the environment is
using the environment more efficiently.
Reduction of biodiversity through species extinction is especially important in
tropical rain forests.
the sustainable use and management of natural resources.
maintenance of resources in their present condition.
What statement describes the Tropical Forest biome?
It covers only 6% of Earth's land area, It contains more than half of the world's species, and While disappearing at a rate of 25-50 million acres per year, only 6% of the world's tropical forests are protected.
The United Nations sustainable doesn't development concept links to what?
maximum yield on investment
The World Wildlife Federation claims the world surpassed its sustainable level around
Critics and defenders of sustainable development both agree that
more international cooperation is needed to reduce the gap between LDCs and MDCs.
Estimates of earth's total number of species range from
3 million to 100 million.
What of these have no land under conservation?
Cambodia, Iraq, and some former Soviet Republics
To avoid depleting resources, future generations will need to increase their use of
More developed countries possess a disproportionate share of energy resources.
More developed countries consume a disproportionate share of energy resources.
The United States, Russia, and China account for roughly two-thirds of the world's coal reserves.
China changed from a net importer to an exporter of petroleum during the 1990s.
Since 1990, natural gas consumption has increased slightly more rapidly than the 2% annual growth rate for petroleum.
Like petroleum, coal is a nonrenewable energy resource that will be depleted within the next century.
Pollution problems are a product of high population concentrations.
Rapid economic transformation in China has resulted in rapidly rising levels of pollution.
Acid deposition and acid precipitation are common examples of global-scale air pollution.
The near disappearance of the Aral Sea is an extreme example of water pollution.
Some European and North American corporations have tried to transport their toxic waste to West Africa.
Carbon dioxide emissions have increased at an annual rate of more than 10 percent.
Recent advances in reactor technology and high prices of other power sources is driving renewed interest in nuclear power.
An alternative to reducing the amount of waste created is to increase environmental capacity.
The capacity of air, water, and land to accept waste is not fixed, but varies among places and at different times.
Biologists are especially concerned with genetic diversity, while geographers are more interested in biogeographic diversity.
Increased recycling efforts in the United States meant that 85 million of the 254 million tons created in 2007 did not have to go to landfills.
What U.S. cities is a site along the Mississippi River and is situated as a major port for offshore petroleum production in the Gulf of Mexico?
Holland converted the Zuider Zee into a fresh water lake by using
Rechannelling the Kissimmee River in Florida produced an increase of what adverse environmental impacts?
pollution of drinking water, runoffs from cattle grazing, and disruption of wildlife habitats
Conserving resources to ensure enough for future generations is called
A potential reserve is an energy source that
is suspected to exist but has not been discovered
A developer clears several acres of forest to make room for a shopping center. All traces of the original landscape have been eliminated. This is an example of
What refers to the decision to abandon the use of a product that harms the environment and switch to a product that is more environmentally friendly?
Mineral fuels are also known as
The theory that people will do what is in their own best interest even when it is not in the best interest of the common good is called the
tragedy of the commons
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