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What 3 types of macronutrients are in the diet?
Carbohydrates, fat and proteins
Excess carbohydrates are converted to ______ and ______
You can store _____ as _____ and ______ as ______
infinite amount as triacyglycerol (fat); small amount as glycogen (liver, muscle)
What are the 2 types of carbohydrates?
simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates
What are simple carbohydrates found in?
Sugars, fruits, vegetables and milk
What are the 2 forms of sugar in simple carbohydrates?
Monosaccharides and disaccharides
Monosaccharides are ____ sugar molecules such as _____, ______ and _____
single; glucose, fructose and galactose
Disaccharides are ____ sugar molecules such as _____, ______ and ______
two; sucrose, lactose and maltose
What form of sugar is in complex carbohydrates?
Polysaccharides (many monosaccharides)
Excess fructose= increase ________= _________
blood lipid; CV issues
What enzyme breaks down carbohydrates?
Maltase: __________ -> _________
Sucrase: ___________ -> ______________
sucrose -> glucose+fructose
Lactase: _________ -> _________
lactose -> glucose+galactose
only ________ are absorbed in the body, not _________
Humans cannot digest _____, which is an _________ found in seeds
What is glycemic index?
Measure of how quickly foods will raise blood glucose level
Dietary fiber is an ______ carbohydrate
What are 3 sources of fiber?
cellulose and hemicellulose, lignin and pectin
What are some properties of cellulose and hemicellulose?
Found in cereal, bran and whole wheat; insoluble; makes more poop
What are some properties of lignin?
Found in vegetable stems; insoluble; lowers blood cholesterol
What are some properties of pectin?
Found in fruits; soluble; lower sugar uptake and serum cholesterol
What makes up >90% of dietary fat?
What makes up <10% of dietary fat?
Phospholipids, cholesterol, cholesterol esters, fatty acids
What are the 2 essential fatty acids?
omega 3 and omega 6
omega 3 and omega 6 are used to synthesize ______
unsaturated fatty acids found in nature has _____ double bonds
Hydrogenation converts __________ fatty acids to _________fatty acids and produces ________________
unsaturated to saturated; trans fatty acids (removed double bond)
Trans fatty acid has a _____ melting point than _____
Trans fats ______ blood cholesterol and ____ risk of heart disease
How are fats solubilized for digestion?
Gastric and pancreatic lipase hydrolyze ________ to __________ and __________
triacylglycerol; fatty acids and monoacylglycerol
Esterase hydrolyzes ________ and _________________
monoacylglycerol and cholesterol ester
How is lipid utilized in the body?
Chylomicron delivers lipid to peripheral tissues
When starved, ____ converts ______ to ______, which are utilized by ______ and ______
liver; fatty acids to ketone bodies; brain and muscle
What is negative nitrogen balance?
inadequate intake of protein; trauma/illness; loss of N
What is positive nitrogen balance?
Increase in protein stores; children, pregnancy, recovering illness; gain N
What are the 3 amino acids that cannot be synthesizes by the body or not enough?
Arginine, methionine, and phenylalanine
What is celiac disease?
a genetic disease related to gluten intolerance which causes lining of small intestine to become inflamed and damaged
Excess energy is stored mostly as ____ in _______ ________
fat; adipose tissue
Glycogen in ______ for blood glucose levels
Glycogen in _____ for exercise
What happens in well-fed state?
Insulin release; breakdown of glucose and AA, glycogen and FA synthesis, no gluconeogenesis
What happens in early fasting state?
Glucagon release; glycogen breakdown, gluconeogenesis (make glucose), no catabolism of amino acids
What happens in fasting state?
Glucagon release; gluconeogenesis; protein used as energy source; breakdown of lipids; ketogenesis; reduced TH
The brain only uses _____ and _______ as energy
glucose and ketone bodies
What is Maramus?
Inadequate intake of protein AND energy
What is Kwashiokor?
Inadequate intake of protein with adequate energy (edema)
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