Terms in this set (46)
Landslides with a concave-upward profile are called
Which ONE of the following would increase the risk of having a landslide?
water infiltration (addition of water), vibration or shock (earthquakes), saturated sand
A mass movement that can result in the tilting of power lines and headstones is called
True/False: Rockslides are composed of regolith, mud and variable size clasts.
Identify the FALSE statement. Classification of mass movement events is based on the
TRUE: Speed and energy + material
Which factors contributed to the devastating mudslides in California that were discussed in class?
wildfires and vegetation was removed and massive flooding created mudslide
Avalanches are high-velocity, mass-movement events that move downslope like a slurry.
Which of the following will not help to prevent the risks of landslides, avalanches and rock falls?
THE FOLLOWING WILL HELP PREVENT:
The Truckee Meadows Watershed...
-has municipal, agricultural, hydropower, recreation, flood control, and fish and wildlife uses
-has a very political water management uses
- 3,120 square miles of drainage
- 140 miles long stretching from lake tahoe to pyramid lake
- crosses state lines and city jurisdictions (have to agree and come to terms on water management because it changes how much water is let out of dams etc)
-flows from lake tahoe to pyramid lake
Stream discharge is defined as the product of the streams cross-sectional area and the average stream velocity. Based on that, which expression is correct?
D=A x V
*area is in units squared, velocity is m/s
Which is not a true statement about drainage networks?
-are considered a trellis network when rivers flow over uniform substrate with gentle slope
- *know each type of drainage network: dendritic, radial, rectangular, trellis, parallel
-drainage networks are classified based on the material they flow over
Streams can transport sediment....
-bedload (larger particles) larger material moves more slowly , suspended loads (small grains) carried through flow of water, dissolved loads (dissolved minerals) can't see minerals, they're part of the water
A typical longitudinal profile of a stream...
-illustrates that a stream's gradient is steeper near its headwaters than near its mouth
An ephemeral stream
-is a shallower water cable/ seasonal stream
-flow in places with low annual rainfall, low water table, and high rates of evaporation
-water table is lower than the bed of a channel
Considering the figure shown, which of the following statements is TRUE?
-deposit on the inside curve, eventually will abandon the curve portion
-causes oxbow lake
River deltas form
-where a stream empties into standing or slow moving water
-at the mouth of the river
-by the sediment that's carried in a river and deposited where there is sediment buildup
-Louisiana is formed from river deltas
A continental margin that coincides with a subduction zone at a plate boundary is called
-one of the most common/diverse oceanic ecosystems
-constructs flow and creates eddies, resulting in upwelling
-often located at mid ocean ridges
-nutrient rich waters
- change the waterflow dynamic
- pull water up, and bring nutrient dense waters to the surface
- have enough light to support species
Which of the following is not a type of ocean current?
types: shallow currents, Deep water currents, gyres, eddies, tides
During ice ages...
-sea level goes down, more glaciation, seawater is locked up in ice
Identify the True statement about ocean water.
-salinity ranges from 1%-4%, average is 3.5%
-when ocean water freezes/ evaporates, the salt remains behind
-differences in temperature and salinity lead to variations in water density
-colder/saltier water is denser
This image shows the ocean "conveyor belt," which...
-mixes the entire ocean every 1.5 million years
-is driven by salinity,water density, and temperature
-circulates water around the globe, sinking in the northern atlantic
-takes hundreds of thousands of years to complete a cycle
The Coriolis effect...
-causes a deflection of moving air and water to the right hemisphere and to left
-causes storms to spin counterclockwise in the north, clockwise in the southern hemisphere
-resides under the surface of the earth, mostly in pores or cracks of rock sediment
-infiltrates soil and is located in underground reservoirs called aquifers
-makes up the largest reservoir of freshwater available to humans
What phenomena does this picture demonstrate?
-result of groundwater pumping called subsidence
Fountains of steam and hot water that erupt episodically from a vent are called...
Which of the following statements is TRUE? The water table (see figure at left)
-shows groundwater recharge
-infiltrates at discharge areas into lakes, streams, oceans
-flows from higher elevation to lower elevation
The karst deposits seen in areas like Florida are known to cause...
Which is FALSE about the cone of depression?
TRUE: if groundwater is extracted faster than it can be replaced, a cone of depression develops
-pumping by large wells lower the water table enough to cause a nearby small well to dry
-volume of water being pumped can drastically change the water table
Which situation would make the best aquifer?
-high porosity, high permeability
Which of the following statements about aquifers is FALSE?
-have low permeability
-hinders water flow
The image below shows different parts of the carbon cycle, the balance between released carbon and absorbed carbon. Which of the following processes does not absorb carbon?
-volcanic eruptions, combustion
This graph shows the change in CO2 concentrations over the last half century or so. What is responsible for the annual variation shown in the inset?
-increased photosynthesis during the northern hemisphere summer
-trees in the seasons
Milankovitch Cycles do not include?
INCLUDES: Eccentricity, obliquity, precession (wobbles), tilt
Scientists predict that sea levels will rise __________ by the year 2100.
-one meter (3.28 feet)
Which is not a short-term driver of climate change:
You just inherited beachfront property in Florida! Which scenario should you fear the most?
-sea level rise, land ice melting
According to the following graph, which of the following statements is TRUE?
-sea level rose steadily over the course of the mesozoic
-sea level dropped steadily over the course of the paleozoic
The above graph shows eustatic (global) sea level throughout history. One factor that drives sea level is the amount of water sequestered on land in the form of ice. Based on this information, and by reading the graph, when was Earth the coldest in the last 500 million years?
~240 million years ago
The Keeling Curve is a(n) _______ of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere.
-short term record
Oxygen isotopes have been used by geologists and climatologists to determine the occurrences of past ice ages based on the ratio of....
-16O and 18O (two oxygen isotopes)
Which of the following is the most damaging greenhouse gas?
Carbon dioxide/ methane
Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere...
- it's increasing at unprecedented rate
- outside of the bound of geologic norms
This image shows the ice-core record based on oxygen isotope data. Based on this graph, when did our most recent interglacial begin?
If global warming continues, global average temperature could rise by 4oC by the end of the century. Which of the following effects is not expected to occur?
EXPECTED TO OCCUR: increased glacial melting, wildfires, warmer oceans
It is well established that CO2 concentration has doubled since the industrial revolution. In 1700, therefore, the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere was closer to:
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