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PSY 462 FinalD
Terms in this set (56)
Privilege status - is defined by an group's power and influence
Stigmatized groups do not share this status and differ in terms of appearance or behavior
Stigmatized individuals have a characteristic that is devalued by the dominant group and sets them apart
Some stigmatized experiences can be short-lived or benign.
What defines a stigmatized group?
- Course (stability)
- Aesthetic qualities
Stigma by association
Members of the dominant group can receive a courtesy stigma when they associate with stigmatized group members.
Neuberg et al 1994
- Participants watched a social interaction between two males.
- Told that males were either friends or strangers.
- Person A revealed to Person B that he was gay or heterosexual.
- Participants were less comfortable with Person B when he was friends with Person A (when gay)
- Person B had a stigma by association with Person A.
Occurs when there is a preponderance of one group over another, and only a few members from the "other" group is represented.
3 perceptual tendencies affect tokens:
1.) visibility- tokens capture attentional awareness because of their uniqueness.
2.) contrast- differences between the token and the dominant group are exaggerated.
3.) assimilation- members of the dominant group distort the token's characteristics to fit the stereotype.
- Actions of the token are seen as a representation of the entire group.
- Tokens may feel isolated.
- Can lead to a "chilly climate"- tokens do not feel welcomed or supported.
Men in Female Dominated Professions
- Rarely have negative experiences
- Glass escalator effect: men in female dominated professions may find themselves on the fast track to promotion.
Personal/Group Discrimination Discrepancy (PGDD)
People believe their group is more likely to be discriminated against than they are as individuals.
PGDD: Cognitive Explanations
- Group examples are processed and come to mind more easily than individual information.
- People use different comparison standards to judge personal and group discrimination.
-- Compare own experiences to other members of their group.
-- Compare group's experiences to other groups
PGDD: Motivational Explanations
- Want to deny or minimize own experiences with discrimination
- Carvallo 2006
- People who highly identify with their group are more likely to report discrimination.
- Stigma consciousness: Some people are more sensitive to possible discrimination.
- How willing are people to confront discrimination? Not Very
- Brinkman et al 2011: Women were non-confrontational when facing sexism 75% of the time.
- Dominant groups may view those claiming discrimination as:
-- taking advantage of discrimination for personal gain.
- Kaiser et al 2001a
Claiming Discrimination cont..
People support ingroup members who have a strong case for claiming discrimination.
Disruptive concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype.
Stereotype Threat: Key Features
1.) It's a general process
2.) It can affect everyone, even high status groups
3.) Stems from situational pressures that bring the stereotype to mind, not merely from internalization of the stereotype.
Stereotype Threat: Processes
- Being under stereotype threat
-- is physiologically arousing
-- reduces cognitive resources
Reducing Stereotype Threat
- Keep test instructions neutral
- Provide role models that disconfirm the stereotype
- Have people write about their values.
- Educate people about stereotype threat.
Information about group performance can provide a performance boost for members of nonstereotyped groups.
Minority Stress Model
- Situational factors unrelated to group membership are sources of general stress that affect well-being.
- Minorities experience additional stressors.
- External: Objective events which a stigmatized group may or may not identify as acts of discrimination.
- Internal: Stigmatized group members' expectation that they will be rejected because of group membership.
Minority Stress Model cont...
Exposure creates a toxic environment that damages health and well-being.
Indirect Effects of Minority Stress
- Normative events affect everyone but raise different issues for stigmatized groups.
- Non-normative events are experienced ONLY by stigmatized groups.
Threats to Self Esteem
Differences may be due to individualistic vs. collectivistic cultural attitudes
Disengagement and Disidentification
- Disengagement: a defensive detachment of self-esteem from outcomes in a particular domain
- Disidentification: redefining one's self-concept so that a domain is no longer an area of self-identification
People sometimes compensate for potential discrimination by changing their behavior to disconfirm the stereotype.
- Women wrote an essay about their life in 10 years.
- Told group of men would evaluate the essay.
- All, some, or none of the men were prejudice.
- Women forewarned of prejudice made fewer references to stereotypically feminine topics.
- Forewarned women distanced themselves from feminine stereotypes.
Gender Belief System
Beliefs about the traits and roles men and women should possess.
-- Includes both descriptive and prescriptive elements.
-- Conveyed through media, parents, peers, etc.
-- Learning begins early and continues throughout life.
- Agentic or instrumental: competence cluster that represents men's traits
-- independent, strong, and self-confident
- Communal or expressive: warmth cluster that represents women's traits.
-- emotional, helpful, and kind.
Gender Stereotypes contin.
Also include information about:
- cognitive abilities
- appropriate emotions
- physical characteristics
Media images of men more often focus on images of the face than women.
People believe that what is masculine is not feminine and what is feminine is not masculine.
How Widespread are Gender- Stereotypic Beliefs?
- Research has found similar results across age, geographic region, and time.
- Gender-stereotypic traits are universal and stable.
- Caveat: participants are usually members of majority groups. aka White people.
Accuracy of Gender-Associated Beliefs
- Stereotypic beliefs mirror the traits that women and men assign to themselves:
-- accurate at the group level
-- inaccurate at the individual level.
- Gender-associated beliefs overlap between the sexes more than people think.
-- variability within each sex
Change over Time
Women endorse agentic traits more today than 20 years ago.
-- Endorsement of communal traits has not changed.
Attitudes toward Men and Women
- Women are wonderful effect
-- The category "women" is viewed more positively than "men".
- Discrimination-afffection paradox
- women are viewed positively but still experience discrimination.
- gender based prejudice is widespread ( wage gap)
Subtypes of women and men
- Over 200 gender-associated subtypes have been identified
--major categories: occupation, family roles, ideologies, physical features, and sexuality.
- When evaluating others, people distinguish between liking and respect
-- affected by the roles people occupy.
Attitudes towards women's rights and responsibilities
- People hold less traditional attitudes toward women's rights than in the past.
- Modern sexism: People still indirectly express negative attitudes toward women in nontraditional roles
Dimensions of Modern Sexism
Hostile Sexism: negative beliefs; punishes nontraditional women
Benevolent Sexism: more positive beliefs; rewards traditional women
Women in the Workplace
- The number of women in higher education and the workplace continues to increase.
- Many jobs remain gender segregated
-- sticky floor: traditionally female occupations do not offer many advancements.
-- glass ceiling: barrier that prevent women from reaching the highest levels.
Role Congruity Theory
- 2 types of prejudice prevent women from pursuing high-level positions.
-- belief that women are less likely than men to be successful in leadership.
-- higher probability of women receiving negative evaluations.
- Female leaders occupy a role that violates expectations
-- about what leaders should be like
-- about what women should be like
Women in Faculty Roles
- Perceptions of a faculty member are:
-- similar to the male gender role
-- different from the female gender role
Consequences for Career Choices
Expectations about roles with certain jobs can affect career paths.
-- STEM careers are seen as agentic
-- Women want careers that require communal traits
Improving Women's Chances for Success
- Exposure to role models
- Teach women about gender-based occupational discrimination (Weisgram 2007)
- Let women know that they can speak out about gender bias.
The Male Gender Role
--men expected to be strong and tough; not feminine.
- Negative consequences:
-- low self esteem
-- drug use
-- anti-gay prejudice
Heterosexism and Sexual Prejudice
- Sexual stigma (Societal Level)
-- negative regard society collectively accords to any nonheterosexual behavior
- Sexual prejudice (Personal Level)
-- negative attitudes based on sexual orientation.
Stereotypes of Lesbians and Gay Men
- Gay men are seen as similar to heterosexual females.
- Lesbians seen as similar to heterosexual males.
- People more often believe feminine men are gay than masculine women are lesbians.
Attitudes Toward Sexual Minorities
Public opinion rapidly changing; shift toward greater acceptance
Individual differences in attitudes
Gender differences in Anti-Gay Prejudice
- Heterosexual men have greater intolerance of homosexuals than do heterosexual women.
- People who endorse traditional gender role attitudes have more negative attitudes toward homosexuality.
- Men completed a personality test
- Feedback indicated their personality was masculine or feminine
- Then evaluated masculine and feminine gay men
- Threatened men showed increased negativity toward effeminate gay men.
Attitudes Toward Bisexual People
- Common Stereotypes:
-- is transitory or curiosity rather than distinct sexual orientation
- Heterosexuals, gay men, and lesbians all hold negative attitudes toward bisexuality.
Heterosexism in the workplace
A significant number of gay men and lesbians report workplace discrimination
Some sexual minorities choose to pass as heterosexuals out of fear of rejection, loss of employment, or physical violence.
Factors that make a workplace less heterosexist:
-- presence of other gay people
-- gay-friendly policies
-- place of employment in a location with anti-discrimination legislation.
Prejudice Against Transgender People
Individual differences variables that predict attitudes toward homosexuality also predict transphobia
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