POLS 206 Exam #2
Terms in this set (166)
Organization that nominates and runs candidates for office under party label to win government offices (not just a interest group)
A formal organization of persons who share common attitudes and make demands on others in society to promote or protect that matter
Emphasis on shared attitude or interest and must engage in political action
What is required to be considered in a interest group?
Pursue new benefits and defend existing benefits
What are the two goals of interest groups?
Defense of existing benefits, policy change requires success at multiple decision points
Which goal is easier to achieve defense of existing benefits or pursuing of new ones? Why?
First Amendment allows it, and is a type of political organization that most people belong to
Why are there even interest groups?
3/4 of all citizens belongs to a type of interest group
Who belongs to interest groups?
If Material, Solidary or Purposive Benefits are greater than cost
Why do people join interest groups?
tangible rewards that people gain through membership (Discount on goods or services) Ex. AARP
Intangible Benefits, such as pleasure and friendship among individuals involved in a enterprise Ex. Farmers Organization
Benefits deriving from feeling good about contributing to a cause, aimed at benefiting others
Maximize benefits and minimize cost
What is rational?
A benefit that cannot be withheld from anyone even those who don't contribute to the cost, one person's enjoyment cannot be prevented from others Ex. Environmental Organization
Person who enjoys the public good benefits but doesn't pay for them, always best to have a minimal amount
Supply good requires collective action and if all people become a free rider no one will be there anymore
Why is free riding a problem?
Group of people that work together for the provision of public good
Selective benefits, Government Coercion,Social Ostracism
How can one overcome free rider problem?
Provided by an interest group as an incentive for only members (Material and Solidary)
Goverment can force people to contribute to providing the public good such as closed shop- Labor unions mandating union membership
Basically peer pressure and is effective in small groups for overcoming free riding
Pluralist, Exchange and Niche Theory
What are the three theories for origin of interest groups?
Interest groups form in reaction to problems created by particular social or economic events Ex. Economic Depression or Roe Vs. Wade (Abortion). Can't explain how to overcome free riding
Interest groups form an "exchange" between entrepreneur and an unorganized interest that is vaguely represented (Selective Benefits)
By- Product Theory
Theory formed to get rid of free riding problem; most people aren't for public good but instead for Selective Benefits
Political Environment has a certain carrying capacity to support all the interest groups, explains growth of interest groups partitioning into small segments representing narrower interests
From - 1959 to 1980
When were interest groups growing at a huge rate?
What is the highest # of labor unions lobbying for?
Activities to influence public policy to promote or protect their influence
Type of lobbying with direct contact (one on one, letters and emails) meeting
Deals with people that don't have history with the official by working with intermediaries or constituents
Membership, Leadership, Money
What are the three factors that make interest groups successful?
What is better to have within a interest group, Dispersion of people or a huge amount of people within one area?
Small group with great leadership
What's better a small group with great leadership or a large group with leadership lacking?
Ways that the interest groups use their resources such as hiring a professional lobbyist for both parties not just a singular party
Joining forces with other interest groups (indirect) to focus common and overlapping interests
Their own membership, Political Parties, Public opinion, congress, courts and the president
Who would interest groups lobby to?
Amicus Curiae Brief
Brief filed by someone or some organization who has interest in the case but not an actual party
two groups who do not necessarily have a common interest, but do not have an opposing interest, support "scratch my back and i'll scratch"
Lawsuit file to test the constitutionality of governmental policy Ex. Brown vs. Board of Education
Most interest groups are just a conservative force to preserve ____ but it is hard to change a policy
Organizations specifically created to raise money and make political contributions on behalf of an interest group
What type of interest group is there more PAC's and more money contributed to?
Type of committee like a PAC but can raise unlimited amounts of money, where it can be donated where they wish stimulated in 2012
Tax exempt organization that tries to influence elections, such as voter mobilization, but cannot advocate the election or defeat of a canidate
"Social Welfare Groups"; unlike other groups names of leaders can be kept a secret
No, Interest Groups are barely regulated
Are interest groups regulated alot?
Limits activities interest groups can engage and lobbyist must disclose their identity and facts
What are the two ways interest groups can be restricted?
Method of influencing politics, scope of issue concern, and political parties are Quasi- Public
What are the differences between political parties and interest groups?
Nominate candidates and run for office
Parties actually ________ unlike interest groups.
What where political parties called by James Madison?
No formal membership in the U.S
Is there any formal membership within Political Parties?
Party in the electorate, government, organization
What are the three distinct elements of membership in political parties?
Party in the electorate
Consists of ordinary citizens who identify with a political party, which is most active at election time
Party in the Government
Elected and appointed officeholders that affiliate with a party, uses official powers to pursue common policies
Party Officers/ professionals who hold positions in the party that provide party canidates
Facilitate participation in the democratic process
What is the function of Political Parties?
Aggregate individual interests into broad coalitions, simplify alternatives, stimulate interests in gov
How does political parties facilitate participation?
No people won't take the time to go through all the canidates
Would democracy be better if voters had more choices in who they elect?
Theory that humans have a psychological need for predictability
Responsible Party Gov. Model
Party Leaders choose the man who gets nominated by the party, with disciplined parties and cohesion, voters choose if they did good next election
No U.S doesn't, U.S has no cohesion, diverse views, also party leaders are chosen in primaries not by party officials
Does U.S fit the Responsible Party Gov. Model? Why?
Difficult by seperation of powers, overlapping terms and divided Gov.
Why can't U.S's majority party enact it's own proposed policies?
Party Decline Thesis
Thesis with evidence being weakening electorates attachment to political parties, rise of candidate centered campaigns, less party voting in congress
Yes but they still have a persuasive influence in politics since 1970's it's started to grow
Have parties weakened truly?
From 1980's to present
When did party in the electorate and party in the gov start showing strength again?
Party identification with more strong partisans, with fewer independents
Yes but only with learners
Is it true that there are more independents percentage wise within the electorate than any other party?
One party wins president other party wins majority in congress
No difficult to pass anything with divided government
Is divided Government good for implying parties wishes?
Majority of 1 vote against a majority of the other party
Strong party organizations led by a party "boss"
The party boss
Who decides who gets the nomination for office within a political machine?
uses "political patronage" to reward supporters
Vote buying and illegal votes
What are some examples of the widespread corruption that once occurred?
Reforms were put in place like the merit system, direct primary, and the secret ballet
What caused political machines to decrease in the early 1900's?
Weaker but they are still central players in electoral politics
Are modern party organizations weaker or stronger? Why?
One party holds all or almost all of the offices in government, can be democratic but only one party has a true chance (counties in u.s, Mexico, Nazi party) (presidential system)
3 or more parties effectively compete for power with not one party gaining complete control (most democratic) (Japan, Germany, Israel)
Only 2 major parties compete for power, minor parties can run but have little chance to get into office (U.S, 6 of 21 democracies from WWII)
Historical differences reaching the extent to differences in the constitution
Why is there only two parties in the U.S?
Feds vs. Anti-Feds
Feds vs. Democratic Republicans
Republicans Vs. Democrats
What have been the three different two-party disputes?
No but they do have major influences on major parties
Do minor parties ever win in U.S politics?
Major parties adopt minor parties if they get enough percentage support
Why do minor parties get absorbed?
Minor party siphons off votes from the dominant party and makes the weaker party win (Ex. Bush winning over Gore)
How can minor parties affect major parties dealing with elections?
What are national party organizations composed of?
Majority of delegates plus one (2,777 Democrats; 1,144 Republicans) to win a nomination
Each party has a formula to allocate delegates to each state by population and party loyalty
How many delegates are sent by each state?
mechanism that tries to achieve popular sovereignty by a collective decision making process in which citizens choose an individual to hold and exercise the powers of public office
National convention where delegates are chosen at a state convention (used a long time ago)
First used in strategy at 1912 but was first truly used in 1970 where voters directly elect delegates (Used most often today)
Transfer from professional politicians to amateurs (Citizens)
What does the transformation from Caucus to Primary method mean?
Tendency of states to move primaries earlier in season to gain influence over the election which shortens the mist clearing process
Lessened amount of time available to look over the delegates, money must be raised early, and the quality of campaign decreased
Why is frontloading a concern?
week 13 in 1976 to week 6 in 2008
What week in the years 1976 & 2008 where the 60% of delegates chosen due to frontloading?
Period between election of president and first official contests to pick the newest candidate from each party, where no formal rules are in place
To raise money, get mentioned and endorsed
What are the reasons for the invisible primary?
Placement in the money primary
What is one of the major indicators for the strength of the candidate?
Standing in the polls early mostly reflects what?
Federal and state officials, celebrities and interest group officials
Who endorses candidates?
Iowa caucus and New Hampshire primary
They are first (Publicity) and to show candidates that exceed expectations
Why are the initial contests so important?
Begins after the two initial contests, but doesn't have a specific duration that slowly brings forward strong opponents and eliminates weaker ones
Several states moved their primaries to March
Nomination of Presidential Candidate that ratifies choices in primaries and caucuses that is suppose to look good on tv (Pep Rally), that adopts party platform and rules to governing
By balancing the ticket instead of "Best qualified for presidency"
How does a president pick their VP?
Who did Obama pick to balance the election with his tremendous time with political experience
Invisible Primary Predicted better
What is better for predictions of party presidential nominees Invisible primary or the Initial contests?
What is best for predicting the president within the Invisible Primary?
No he is chosen from 51 separate elections to choose electors
Is the president chose by popular vote?
Institution responsible for electing the president that isn't truly democratic
What is the minimum number of electors a state can have?
What is the number of total electoral votes?
Originally state legislatures chose electors, now it's by popular election with the Winner- Take- All
How do states choose electors?
No not always but it's rare and hasn't affected anything
Do electors always vote for their own party?
Cast of vote for president depends more on where the vote is than how many vote, small states have disproportionally larger power (violates popular sovereignty and political equality)
Why does the electoral college violate democratic principles? (Wyoming . 18% population with .56% weight)
Absolute Majority of electoral votes (270)
What is required to be elected president?
Yes, George Bush did it over Gore with winning 13 out of the 19 small states (Same electoral votes as California but less population)
Can you still win the election with only electoral votes and less popular vote?
Direct, Proportional, and District Plan
What are the three reforms to try and change the Electoral College?
Direct Popular Election
Abolish the electoral college completely and permit direct voting by the public but it's as hard as the district plan to put in place
keeps the electoral college as is but majority of electoral votes required to win, and allocate state's electoral votes in proportion to popular vote in the state, but is the worst at resolving the electoral college conflict
keeps the electoral college as is with majority of electoral votes required to win that gives candidate 1 vote for each house district win by plurality then 2 votes the the winner statewide (hard to put in place)
Which reform does the best to select the popular vote candidate?
To maintain popular sovereignty (Wishes of the Government and the Governed)
Why are public opinions important for democracy?
Scientific Polling and Participation
How do we find out what the people want from the government?
"Pulse of democracy"
Scientific Polling uses samples to measures opinions of a population which is also called the ______
Government is complex and the public is often divided with different opinions
Why isn't public opinion an adequate guide for governing?
They can be easily manipulated for political gain
Why can't polls always be trusted?
Direction, Stability, Intensity, and salience
what are the basic elements of public opinion?
idea of public opinion being positive or negative on an issue (Ex. Abortion; people feel as though abortion should be legal sometimes such as certain occasions)
Likelihood of changes in direction of public opinion (opinions on abortion stay relatively the same; pro life or pro choice)
War in Iraq went from 70% in 2003 feeling war was needed to 60% believing the war wasn't worth it by 2011
What changed drastically dealing with stability of public opinion from 2003 to 2011?
How strongly people hold the belief or attitudes that compromise public opinion
Less stable with least intense and High intensity with high stability
With Less intensity or High Intensity what would the stability be for both?
How important the issue is to the public (not intensity), most people can be intense about multiple problems but only one problem is at the top of your priorities for most intense
trustee system of democracy
job of elected leaders to make decisions based on expertise and judgement on the issue not his/her own personal wishes
attitudes of people with large measures of political influence
Every person within the target group has a equal chance of being selected
When asking people for a random samples who should be asked?
Margin of Error
Amount of sample that differs from those of the population within very tight boundaries (likely sample answers are wrong)
Right people, question wording, question order,interprentation
What is important for a reliable public opinion poll?
Broad agreement about basic political values, legitimacy in political institutions, and general acceptance of the government processes that ties party by what it stands for
Consistent and interconnected set of values about the appropriate role of government in society (few Americans)
Lifelong process thru which a younger generation learns political values from previous generations (coming from friends, family, school, and media)
process of turning opinion into action to influence "who gets what"
Voting, campaign activities, lobbying, and community activities
What are the forms of political participation?
how easy or difficult it is to participate is know as...
What varies with cost? (voting being least costly and protests being most costly)
Comparing to other countries with political participation which country has the most political participation?
Comparing to other countries with political participation which country has the least political participation?
decreased from the high of 1856's 80% until 1950s then has remained within 50 to 65%
How has voter turnout changed from 1856-2012?
Socio-economic status, pshychological engagement, broad social network
What determines political participation?
Education, Income, and occupation
What determines socio-economic status(SES)?
efficiency, trust in government, political alienation, and mixed evidence
How can physchological engagement with politics be determined?
Low SES's, urban, minorities, and catholic
Upon the Sociological model democratic voters are what? (Columbia Model)
High SES's, rural, white protestants
Upon the sociological model republican voters are what? (Columbia Model)
Party Identification (Strongest), Candidate Image, Issues
What is the Social- Psychological Model (Michigan Model) determined by?
rational choice model
voting is the product of a rational cost-benefit calculation (individual will vote if the benefits outweigh the costs), most recent method
policy makers become subservient "to every passing gust of public opinion"
deliberately tries to push respondents into favoring an issue or a certain candidate by manipulating what the questions are or how they are asked
a sample that, because it does not accurately represent the overall population, is likely to lead to erroneous conclusions about the population
the percentage that the true opinion falls within the boundaries set by the margin of error
only registered party members may vote in a parties primary
allows independents and in some states cross over party voters
states in which the outcome could go either way
direct contributions to candidates which are limited and regulated (money)
contributions to parties for party building activities (527 groups are loopholes to this)
tendency for the single-member district plurality system to favor a two party's system