Terms in this set (18)
The extent to which indivudal believe they can master a particular behavior. An individuals belif in their ability to succeed in reaching a specific goal. Important motivator of behavior.
Social cognitive theory
Humans are agents who are engaged in their own developement through their actions. It is the theory that what people think,believe and feel affects their behavior. So individuals are viewed as both products and producers of their own environments and social systems.
Learning through observation of reward and punishment of others.
A fixed belief about a particular group of people that is also applied to any one member of that group. The use of stereotypes is one way in which we categorise and simplify our social world. Stereotype is a schema applied to a person or group.
When individuals believe that their behavior performance will be judged on the basis of negative stereotypes about their group instead of personal merit. Refers to the anxiety that occurs when a stereotype is believed.
Social identity theory
Refers to the way someone thinks about themselves and evaluates themselves in relation to groupsl SIT is about how a person percieves itself based on their membership of social groups.
realistic conflict theory
The idea that limited resources lead to conflict between groups and result in increased prejudice and discrimination
the motivation to show that our ingroup is preferable to an outgroup.
In-group and out-group
In-group: social group with which a person experiences a sense of belonging or identifies as a member
Out-group: social group with which an individual does not identify
Negative feelings towards an out-group are not based on a sense of dislike, but favoritism for the in-group and absence of favoritism for the out-group
minimal group paradigm
an experimental paradigm in which researchers create groups based on arbitrary and seemingly meaningless criteria and then examine how the members of these "minimal groups" are inclined to behave toward one another
Showing a negative attitude toward members of social groups different from one's own.
The tendency to divide items and people into groups in order to better understand them
outgroup homogeneity effect
The tendency to assume that there is a greater similarity among members of outgroups tham among members of ingroups.
The process by which a member of a group will adjust their attitudes and behaviors to fit the views of the group. People conform for different reasons.
A set of the attitudes, values, belifs and behaviors shared by a group of people, but different for each individual, communicated from one generation to the next.
The process by which the attitudes belifs and behavior of members of a culture are passed on to younger members or to new adult members.
difficulties associated with adapting to a new culture
Indirect learning, learning through observation of how others are making mistakes or succeed.