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The gene for the testosterone receptor protein is on the X chromosome. If a mutation in this gene on one of the X chromosomes results in a nonfunctional receptor protein, which of the following would most likely result?
The action of testosterone is also dependent on having a functional testosterone receptor.
Difference between sex and reproduction
Reproduction is formation of new individuals while sex is a method of exchanging and recombining genetic information
How is the paramecium able to exchange genetic info without reproduction?
Paramecium uses conjugation to have exchange of genetic informaion between two cells. This conjugation does NOT require reproduction.
Conjugation allows paramecium to attach to each other and trade genetic info
Human sex hormones
synthesized by gonads ,
regulated by pituitary and hypothalamus
produced by adrenal glands in both sexes
a pair of endocrine glands that sit just above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress.
the ovaries and testes in sexually reproducing animals
male sex hormones
sex hormones (ex- estradiol, estrone) secreted in greater amounts by females than by males and contributing to female sex characteristics
In nonhuman female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity
Difference between estradiol and estrone
Estradiol is the estrogen of youth. It is most abundant when we are young and full of energy, no wrinkles, weight easily to control, sex drive skyrocketing, low to no incidence of heart disease, cancer - in general feeling great and if we took a minute to be thankful to any hormone in our life, Estradiol should be the one.
Estrone is the estrogen of menopause. It is a reactive, negative and miserable feeling estrogen. The increased production of estrone coincides with the increased incidence of breast cancer and heart disease in women over 50.
How can testosterone be converted into estradiol?
One enzymatic step converts testosterone
Differences between the sexes in secondary sexual characteristics of body and brain which result from the formation of testes/ ovaries
Mammalian brain begins with default pattern of
How does estradiol, which is produced from testosterone, masculinize male brains?
It inhibits DNA methylation
How do the genitalia of male and female embryos (external change) develop starting in 7th week?
Sex hormones (presence or absence of testoterone is crucial) influence the genitalia
T or F: External changes are paralleled by internal changes in females and males in development.
Mullerian duct system
the prenatal duct system that will become the female uterus, fallopian tubes, and upper vagina
Wolffian duct system
the prenatal duct system that will become the male epididymis, vas deferens, and seminal vesicles
Why is estrogen not the signal of development?
Testosterone is the signal because development occurs within the body of the female, which is loaded with estrogen
sex-determining region Y (SRY)
a gene on the Y chromosome that specifies male development
it codes for a DNA binding protein (transcription factor)
What happens in the absence of either testosterone or its receptor?
The female developmental pattern prevails, which is driven by estrogens.
What results from many genetic and developmental conditions not fitting into simple, binary definitions of sex?
Sublte, moderate, and big variations
Primary reproductive organs (gonads)
testes and ovaries
formation of sperm cells (meiosis)
The production of mature egg cells
cells in the testes that undergo meiosis
Follice-stimulating hormone (FSH)
in females: casues maturation of ovarian follicles; Stimulates the development of a follicle that produces estrogens as it matures
in males: stimulates maturation of the seminiferous tubules and sperm production
is one of the secreted regulatory hormones of the anterior pituitary
Leutinizing Hormone (LH)
Hormone that is essential for reproduction
Maintains corpus leutum
2 functions of testosterone
1. promote sperm development
2. produces male secondary sexual characteristics
Where do ova (eggs) develop?
Within follicles inside the ovary
Describe ovulation, the follice, and how the corpus luteum is formed
Ovulation is release from egg/oocyte in enlarged follicle. After ovulation, the follicle remains and is called the corpus luteum.
When is FSH released?
It is released in response to low estrogen levels at the start of a menstrual period. These increasing estrogen levels stimulate the growth of the endometrium, or uterine lining.
What causes the follicles to burst? What results from the burst?
Cause: increasing estrogen levels
Result: Oocyte (egg) is released into the fallopian tube to start ovulation; burst of LH is released by pituitary
What happens after ovulation?
Follicle becomes corpus luteum
Gradually, levels of progesterone and estrogen drop and trigger loss of uterine lining (menstrual period).
estrogen and progesterone continue to thicken endometrium to prepare for implantation of a blastocyst
How does birth control work?
Administration of estrogen or progesterone (or both, but usually estrogen) given at significant levels during the first half of the ovarian cycle suppresses ovulation.
It suppresses the LH surge.
It makes use of the negative feedback between hormones and the pituitary gland.
They maintain high enough levels of progesterone or estrogen to inhibit the development of a new follicle
follicular phase of ovarian cycle
period of follical growth and maturation
- negative feedback on LH
- positive feedback on L
luteal phase of ovarian cycle
period when corpus luteum is active and then degenerates, repeats every 28 days
How can the corpus luteum be made to remain active?
The release of the human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) can caus the CL to remain active and continue to produce progesterone to maintain the uterine lining
Pregnancy begins and FSH levels do not rise to create a new follicle
After the successful implantation of a blastocyst into the endometrium (the lining of the uterus)
- corpus luteum does NOT degenerate
- anterior pituitary does NOT release a spike of LH
- estrogen levels do NOT drop
- FSH levels do NOT rise to high level
anterior pituitary (or hypothalamus WHY)
source: anterior pituitary
target: ovarian follicle
endometrium (lining of uterus)
Trigger ovulation in a rabbit by
- injecting with LH
need more O2 to saturate
must have more hemoglobin
corresponds to left shift, high affinity
masculinization of the mouse brain early in development leads to stereotypes male behavior and is accomplished by
the binding of estradiol to estrogen receptors in specific areas of the male brain
male behaviors require testosterone and estrogen
conversion of testosterone into estrogen is the primary source of estrogen in the male brain
all of the following are possible stimuli/triggers that lead to ovulation in various mammals
- high levels of LH
- high levels of estradiol from maturing follicle
- change of season (shortening of day length)
- coitus (copulation)
How is the release of LH hormone controlled in humans
as mass of follicle cells grows with the maturing follicle, the level of estradiol in the blood gets larger
high level of estradiol stimulates the release of LH by anterior pituitary
Immediately following ovulation, remaining tissue of an ovarian follice is transformed into
Hormones released from the corpus luteum exert
negative feedback on the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary
During most of the menstrual cycle, estrogen and progesterone provide negative feedback to the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. This keeps their levels more or less constant
after egg is released,LH stimulates follicle to develop
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