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5th Grade Math Review
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Key Concepts:
Terms in this set (189)
add
To combine, put together two or more quantities
addend
Any number being added
area model
A model of multiplication that shows each place value product within a rectangle drawing.
array
An arrangement of objects in equal rows
area
The measure, in square units, of the interior region of a 2-dimensional figure or the surface of a 3-dimensional figure.
associative property of multiplication
The product stays the same when the grouping of factors is changed. (a x b) x c = a x (b x c), where a, b, and c stand for any real numbers.
acute angle
An angle with a measure less than 90 degrees
angle
two rays that share an endpoint
bar graph
A graph that uses the height or length of rectangles to compare data
associative property of addition
The sum stays the same when the grouping of addends is changed (a+b) + c = a + (b + c), where a, b, and c stand for any real numbers.
algorithm
A step - by - step method for computing
attribute
A characteristic e.g. size, shape, or color
centimeter (cm)
A metric unit of length equal to 0.01 of a meter. 100 cm = 1 m
congruent
Having exactly the same size and shape
angle measure
The measure of the size of an angle. It tells how far one side is turned from the other side. A one degree angle turns through 1/360 of a full circle.
common multiple
Any common multiple of two or more numbers
commutative property of multiplication
The product stays the same when the order of the factors is changed. a x b = b x a, where a and b are any real numbers.
corresponding terms
Terms that are in the same position in a sequence of numbers.
In the pattern shown, 9 and 18 are the 3rd terms in each sequence - they are corresponding terms.
compare
To decide if one number is greater than, less than, or equal to another number
customary system
A system of measurement used in the US. The system included units for measuring length, capacity, and weight.
braces
Braces can be used to indicate that the objects written between them belong to a set.
commutative property of addition
The sum stays the same when the order of the addends is changed. a + b = b + a, where a and b are any real numbers.
brackets
A type of grouping symbol used in pairs that tells what operation to complete first.
benchmark fractions
Fractions that are commonly used for estimation
common denominator
For two or more fractions, a common denominator is a common multiple of the denominators.
comparison bars
Used to represent larger and smaller amounts in a comparison situation. Can be used to represent all four operations. Different lengths of bars are drawn to represent each number.
denominator
The quantity below the line in a fraction. It tells how many equal parts are in the whole.
difference
The amount that remains after one quantity is subtracted from another.
dividend
A quantity to be divided.
digit
Any of the symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9.
cube
A rectangular solid having six congruent square faces.
divide
To separate into equal groups and find the number in each group or the number of groups.
distributive property
When one of the factors of a product is a sum, multiplying each addend before adding does not change the product.
divisor
The quantity by which another quantity is to be divided.
line plot
Also known as a data plot. A diagram showing frequency of data on a number line.
equal
Having the same value
equal groups
Groups that contain the same number of objects. Whenever you divide, you separate items into equal groups.
estimate
To find a number close to an exact amount; an estimate tells about how much or about how many.
factor
An integer that divides evenly into another.
finite decimal
A decimal that contains a terminating number of digits. (Also called a terminating decimal.)
equation
A mathematical sentence with an equals sign. The amount on one side of the equals sign has the same value as the amount of the other side.
equivalent
Naming the same number.
equivalent fractions
Fractions that have the same value
expression
A variable or combination of variables, numbers, and symbols that represents a mathematical relationship.
evaluate
To find the value of a mathematical expression.
fraction
A way of representing part of a whole or part of a group by telling the number of equal parts in the whole and the number of parts you are describing.
capacity
refers to the amount of liquid a container can hold
classify
To sort into categories or to arrange into groups by attributes.
cup (c)
A customary unit of capacity.
1 cup = 8 fluid ounces
decimal fraction
A fractional number with a denominator of 10 or power of 10. usually written with decimal point.
decimal point
A dot (.) separating the whole number from the fraction in decimal notation.
expanded form
A way to write numbers that shows the place value of each digit.
circle
A place figure with all points the same distance from a fixed point called a center.
composite number
A number greater than 0 that has more than two different factors.
decimal
A fractional number with a denominator of 10 or a powder of 10. Usually written with a decimal point.
decimal notation
A number containing a decimal point.
degree
A unit for measuring angles. Based on dividing one complete circle into 360 equal parts.
factor pairs
A set of two numbers when multiplied, will result in a given product.
graph
A pictorial device used to show a numerical relationship.
formula
A general equation or rule. You can use a formula to find volume formula to find volume in a rectangular prism.
improper fraction
A fraction where the numerator is greater than or equal to the denominator.
horizontal
Line going left to right, like the horizon
foot (ft)
A customary unit of length. 1 foot = 12 inches
gram (g)
The standard unit of mass in the metric system.
greater than
Greater than is used to compare two numbers when the first number is larger than the second number.
hour (hr)
Units of time.
1 hour = 60 minutes
24 hours = 1 day
long divisions
A standard procedure suitable for dividing simple or complex multi-digit numbers.
gallon (gal)
A customary unit of capacity.
1 gallon = 4 quarts
hundredth
One of the equal parts when a whole is divided into 100 equal parts
least common multiple
LCM. The smallest common multiple of a set of two or more numbers.
less than
Less than is used to compare two numbers when the first number is smaller than the second number.
identity property of multiplication
If you multiply a number by one, the product is the same product is the same as that number.
is not equal to
is not the same as
metric system
A system of measurement based on tens. The basic unit of capacity is the liter. The basic unit of length is the meter. The basic unit of mass is the gram.
mixed number
A number with an integer and a fraction part.
multiple
A product of a whole number and any whole number.
identity property of addition
If you add zero to a number, the sum is the same number.
inch (in)
A customary unit of length.
12 inches - 1 foot
key
A part of a map, graph, or chart that explains what the symbols mean
kilogram (kg)
A metric unit of mass equal to 1000 grams.
multiplicative identity of property of 1
Multiplying a number by one gives a product identical to the given number. Also known as Identity Property of Multiplication.
least common denominator (LCD)
is the smallest whole number that is divisible by each of the denominators. of two or more fractions
hundredths
In the decimal numeration system, hundredths is the name of the next place to the right of tenths.
inverse operations
Operations that undo each other.
length
How long something is. The distance from one point to another. Length is measured in units such as inches, feet, centimeters, etc.
ordered pair
A pair of numbers that gives the coordinates of a point on a grid in this order (horizontal coordinate, vertical coordinate).
lowest terms
When a fraction is expressed with the fewest possible pieces, it is in lowest terms. (Also called simplest form.)
milliliter (mL)
A metric unit of capacity.
1000 milliliters = 1 liter.
intersecting lines
Lines that cross at a point.
kilometer (km)
A metric unit of length equal to 1000 meters.
like denominators
Denominators in two or more fractions that are the same.
liter (L)
The basic unit of capacity in the metric system.
1 liter = 1000 milliliters
mile
A customary unit of length.
1 mile = 5280 feet
millimeter (mm)
A metric unit of length.
1000 millimeters = 1 meter
mass
The amount of matter in an object. Usually measured by comparing with an object of known mass. While gravity influences weight, it does not affect mass.
order of operations
An order, agreed on by mathematicians, for performing operations to simplify expressions.
parallell lines
Lines that are always the same distance apart.
parentheses ( )
Used in mathematics as grouping symbols for operations. When simplifying an expression, the operations within the parentheses are performed first.
pentagon
A polygon that has five sides.
obtuse angle
An angle with a measure greater than 90 degree but less than 180 degree
numerator
The number written above the line in a fraction. It tells how many equal parts are described in the fraction.
number line
A diagram that represents numbers as points on a line.
parallelogram
A quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel and congruent sides.
pattern
A repeating or growing sequence or design. An ordered set of numbers or shapes arranged according to a rule.
minute (min)
one sixtieth of an hour or 60 seconds.
perimeter
The distance around a figure.
percent
A special ratio that compares a number to 100 using the symbol %.
picture graph
A graph that uses pictures or symbols to show data.
prism
A 3-dimensional figure that has two congruent and parallel faces that are polygons. The remaining faces are parallelograms.
perpendicular lines
Two intersecting lines that form right angles.
plane figure
A two - dimensional figure.
polygon
A closed plane figure made by line segments.
ounce (oz)
A customary unit of weight equal to one sixteenth of a point. 16 ounces = 1 pound
place value
The value of the place of a digit in a number
product
The answer to a multiplication problem.
pyramid
A polyhedron whose base is a polygon and whose other faces are triangles that share a common vertex
quadrilateral
A four sided polygon
plane
A flat surface that extends infinitely in all directions
quotient
The answer to a division problem.
proper fraction
A fraction less than one. In a proper fraction the numerator is less than the denominator.
remainder
The number that is left over after a whole number is divided equally by another.
rhombus
A quadrilateral with all four sides equal in length.
scale (on a graph)
The numbers that show the units on a graph.
sequence
A set of numbers arranged in a special order or pattern
pint (pt)
A customary unit of capacity. 1 pint = 2 cups
rectangle
A quadrilateral with two pairs of congruent, parallel sides and four right angles.
simplest form
A fraction is in simplest form when the greatest common factor of the numerator and denominator is 1.
rounding
To strategy to find about how much or how many by expressing a number closest to ten, hundred, thousand, or tenth, hundredth, thousandth, etc.
solid figure
A geometric figure with 3 dimensions.
side of a polygon
Any of the line segments that form a polygon.
straight angle
An angle that is exactly 180 degrees - a straight line
standard form
A number written with one digit for each place value.
square unit
A unit, such as square centimeter or square inch, used to measure area.
subtract
An operation that gives the difference between two numbers. Subtraction can be used to compare two numbers, or to find our how much is left after some is taken away.
three-dimensional
3-D. Existing in 3 dimensions; having length, width, and height.
right triangle
A triangle that has one 90 degree angle.
square
A parallelogram with four equal angles AND four equal sides.
sum
The result of addition.
table
An organized way to list data. Tables usually have rows and columns of data.
protractor
A tool used to measure and draw angles.
right angle
An angle that measures exactly 90 degrees/
thousandth
one of 1000 equal parts of a whole.
trapezoid
A quadrilateral with one pair of parallel sides and one pair of sides that are not parallel.
unit fraction
A fraction that has 1 as its numerator.
vertex
A point at which two or more sides of a geometric figure meet.
Vertices is plural of vertex.
whole numbers
Whole numbers are zero and the counting numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and so on. If a number has a negative sign, a decimal point, or a part that's a fraction, it is not a whole number.
inequality
A mathematical sentence that compares two unequal expressions using one of the symbols <, >. or ≠. ex: 26 > 13; 13 < 26; 2 + 4 < 6 + 3
prediction
To state in advanace on the basis of observation, experience, or scientific reason.
triangle
A polygon with three sides and three angles
two-dimensional
Having length and width. Having area, but not volume. Also called a plane figure.
volume
The number of cubic units it takes to fill a figure.
weight
The measure of how heavy something is.
intersect
To meet or cross.
word form
A way of using words to write a number. Also called number names.
yard (yd)
A customary unit of length. 1 yard = 3 feet or 36 inches
meter (m)
A standard unit of length in the metric system.
base of a solid figure
A base of a solid figure is usually thought of as a face upon which it can "sit." Most solid figures have more than one base.
edge
The place where two flat surfaces of a solid figure meet.
probability
The chance that a particular outcome will occur, measured as a ratio of the total possible outcomes.
diameter
a line segment that passes through the center of the circle with endpoints on the circle.
zero property of multiplication
The product of any number and zero is zero.
multiply
The operation of repeated addition of the same number.
line graph
a graph made of points connected by lines. This type of graph is used to show change over time.
face
A flat surface on a solid figure.
greatest common factor
GCF The largest factor of two or more numbers.
mean
The sum of a set of numbers divided by the number of elements in the set. (A type of average)
frequency table
A table that lists a set of numbers or categories and their frequency (how many times each one occurs)
range
The difference between the greatest number and the least number in a set of numbers.
deposit
to put or leave someone or something in a particular place , often to put money in a bank account
vertical
A line going up and down
balanced
When both sides have the same quantity or mass
fair number cube
are mostly used to generate random numbers in an equal manner, meaning each number has an equal, or a one in six, chance of being rolled
ray
A portion of a line which starts at a point and goes off in a particular direction to infinity
Venn diagram
a diagram that uses circles to represent sets and their relationships
withdraw
to remove or take away something in a particular place , often to remove money from a bank account
data
A collection of information
cubic unit
A unit such as a cubic meter to measure volume or capacity.
pound
A customary unit of weight.
1 pound = 16 ounces.
quart
A customary unit of capacity.
1 quart = 2 pints
or
1 quart = 4 cups
simplify
To express a fraction in simplest form.
unit cube
A precisely fixed quantity used to measure volume.
variable
A letter or symbol that represents a number.
tenths
In the decimal numeration, tenths is the name of the place to the right of the decimal point.
thousandths
the name of the next place to the right of hundredths in the decimal numeration system.
prime number
A whole number greater than 0 that has exactly two different factors, 1 and itself.
second
One sixtieth of a minute. There are 60 seconds in a minute.
tenth
One of the equal parts when a whole is divided into 10 equal parts.
unlike denominators
Denominators that are not equal.
axis
A reference line from which distances or angles are measured in a coordinate grid. (plural - axes)
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