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FTCE Chemistry Review- Wallace
Terms in this set (213)
length of time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay
properties of acids
All acids contain hydrogen ,Taste sour, corrosive, release H+ ions in water
properties of bases
taste bitter , slippery to the touch, can be poisonous & corrosive, release OH- ions in water
A solid that is made up of crystals in which particles are arranged in a regular, repeating pattern
types of crystalline solids
molecular, ionic, atomic
molecular crystalline solids
- Force: IMFs, H bonding, dipole attraction, dispersion forces
- Examples: H2O, Hal, He
- Melting Point: Low
- Hardness: Soft
- Electrical Conductivity: None
metallic crystalline solids
- Force: Electrostatic attraction between cations and sea of electrons
- Examples: Na, Fe, Cu
- Melting Point: Variable
- Hardness: Malleable
- Electrical Conductivity: High
ionic crystalline solid
compounds formed by electron transfer
pH equation with pKa
7 + 1/2 [pKa - pKb]
a bonding which holds metallic atoms firmly together by force attraction between metal ions and the mobile electrons.
the difference between the mass of an atom and the sum of the masses of its protons, neutrons, and electrons
Which group of the periodic table always form anions?
Contains nonmetals, 7 valence electrons in it's outermost energy level. Very reactive
What forces hold the double helical structure of DNA together?
Hydrogen bonding and base-stacking interactions.
Who was the first person to notice that the properties of elements went through cyclical changes?
The properties of elements go through cyclical changes in groups of __.
An energy level representing the distance of an electron from the nucleus of an atom.
Shell name = L
2s and 2p
Shell name = M
3s, 3p and 3d
Shell name N
4s, 4p, 4d and 4f
Shell name O
5s, 5p, 5d, 5f and 5g
The amount of energy released when an electron is added to a neutral atom. Also, The amount of energy required to detach one electron from a singly charged negative ion.
The process of changing a measure to an equivalent measure that has different units.
meters to micrometers
1,000,000 um = 1 m
meters to kilometers
1000 m = 1 km
meters to picometers
1m = 1 * 10 to the 12th pm
chemistry dealing with chemical compounds and processes in living plants and animals
How many naturally occurring isotopes does hydrogen have?
What is the size of the positive ion compared to its parent atom?
What gas leaked to cause "The Bhopal gas tragedy" in 1984?
CH3N = C = O
a laboratory procedure in which a basic (or acidic) solution of unknown concentration is reacted with an acidic (or basic) solution of known concentration, in order to determine the concentration of the unknown
The pH of the endpoint depends upon the _______________ used.
An organic molecule with a carbonyl group located at the end of the carbon skeleton.
The total energy of motion in the particles of a substance
The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree celcius
heat of vaporization
The amount of energy required for the liquid at its boiling point to become a gas
A measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid
alkaline earth metals
Beryllium, Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium, Barium, Radium
Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium, Francium
Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon, Radon
From where do Anhydrides, Esters and Amides derive?
Ethers general formula
a hydrocarbon containing only single covalent bonds
meters to nanometers
All the digits that can be known precisely in a measurement, plus a last estimated digit
Identify the appropriate representations of Ethanol
C2H6O and CH3CH2OH
the flow of thermal energy from one object to another
a type of investigation in which collected data is used to compare two or more things or conditions
an investigation used to gather and describe data
a method of scientific exploration with a set hypothesis and controlled conditions
Which element is a non-metal liquid at room temperature?
elements that form a bridge between elements on the left and right sides of the periodic table
involves the exchange of one halogen atom for another.
also called the atomic radius, refers to the distance between an atom's nucleus and its valence electrons. The closer an electron is to the nucleus, the lower its energy and the more tightly it is held.
What is an electrochemical cell
Sum of the mole fractions=
radioactive decay in which an electron is emitted.
The ratio of the mass of a particular element to that of a mole of the compound
An ionic compound whose aqueous solution conducts an electric current
(mass of dissolved substance)/(mass of a solution)
n = quantum number that can be any positive integer
h = Plank's constant (6.626 x 10ˉ³⁴ J•s)
properties of bases
-it will react with an acid.
-it has a pH above 7
-it generates OH- ions
2H -> He. The process which involves smashing two very light particles together at incredibly high speeds in order and fusing them into a new, heavier particle
plant fibers used in rope
the application of biochemistry and biology when creating or modifying genetic material or organisms for specific purposes. It has the potential for eliminating genetic disease in the future.
What does a strong base do in water?
High-pressure liquid chromatograph (HPLC) with detector
provides a way to separate the molecule of interest (through a chromatography column) and then quantify the amount of adenosine with a detector.
a polymer containing monomers of amides joined by peptide bonds. Nylon is a type of polyamide that is made artificially.
first law of thermodynamics
Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
The distances from the nucleus at which electrons can be found
Mass of an electron
the f-block elements from period 6 that follow the element lanthanum
proton transfer reaction
a reaction in which a proton is transferred from an acid to a base
A description of how close a measurement is to the true value of the quantity measured.
a measure of how close a series of measurements are to one another
H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2
the particle that remains when an acid has donated a hydrogen ion
Q < K
Q > K
Q = K
Statistics that look for correlations between variables.
information related to how often a particular event happens in a particular set of data
numerical data used to measure and describe characteristics of groups. Includes measures of central tendency and measures of variation.
A test used to detect the presence of proteins.
Used -OH group
Example of Volumetric Vector Data
suggests that there are three core beliefs in scientific thinking.
order, causation, and chance
A process that separates the substances in a solution based on their boiling points
A process that separates materials based on the size of their particles.
The process that completely destroys all microbial life, including spores.
A technique that is used to separate the components of a mixture based on the tendency of each component to travel or be drawn across the surface of another material.
A gas that arises from the earth where radioactive materials are present.
Planck's Quantum Theory
1. Light is not emitted or absorbed continuously
2. Light is emitted in the form of packets of energy. these packets of energies are called photons
3. The energy associated with a photon is given by the formula; E = h v
total energy of a system
described alpha particles as a form of radioactivity
1903 Nobel Price
solubility product constant (Ksp)
Equals the product of the concentrations of the ions each raised to a power equal to the coefficient of the ion in the dissociation equation.
density x volume
the equilibrium constant
the concentration of the products divided by the concentration of the reactants.[products]/[reactants]
Kc > 1
products are greater
consists solely of carbon and hydrogen, linked only with single bonds
Suffix - ate
change in system's entropy
Negative delta S means
azimuthal quantum number
Second quantum number, designated l.
varies from 0 to (n-1)
having the same number of electrons
The only d block element that does not exhibit variable oxidation states
a pH indicator composed of a blend of several compounds that exhibits several smooth color changes over a pH value range from 1-14 to indicate the acidity or basicity of solutions.
Who first determined that atoms can combine to form molecules?
is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of the gas particles
Substances that slow a catalyst's effect in a chemical reaction are called inhibitors.
depend on the amount of matter that is present
do not depend on the amount of matter present
The scientist whose theory marked the beginning of the development of modern atomic theory in 1808
Entropy of a perfect crystal at absolute zero
equal to zero
A measure of disorder or randomness.
states that the amount of gas which will dissolve in a liquid chiefly depends on the gas pressure.
At what temperature is all matter a gas?
What is the molar volume of any gas at STP?
ml times normality = ml times normality [ mlANA = mlBNB ].
What alkaloid is used to dilate the pupils of the eyes?
is obtained from the light emitted by the substance which is vaporized in a flame or heated by an electric arc
molar heat capacity
the energy required to raise the temperature of one mole of a substance by one degree Celsius
units of molar heat capacity
1 pascal is equal to
1 newton per square meter
Combined Gas Law
use a combination of Boyle's law, Charles' law, and Gay-Lussac's law to handle a situation in which two or three properties of a gas change
Combined Gas Law Equation
Second law of thermodynamics
Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe.
Third Law of Thermodynamics
No system can reach absolute zero
the term used for hiding the identity of the research participants from the researcher
formed when halogens react with each other.
The predicted mass of product using stoichiometry
sp hybrid orbitals
sp2 hybrid orbitals
three hybrid orbitals in a trigonal planar orientation formed by mixing one s and two p orbitals
Sp3 hybrid orbitals
a set of four hybrid orbitals with a tetrahedral orientation produced by mixing one s and three p atomic orbitals
Which alcohol is most soluble in water?
Identify the property which is common to acids, bases, and salts.
They are conductors of electricity when they dissociate into ions
An ingredient that brings two normally incompatible materials together and binds them into a uniform and fairly stable blend.
soaps, gum, gelatin
To what does the "dark reactions" of photosynthesis refer?
Synthesis of carbohydrates
An agent which liberates the gases or fumes for the purpose of destruction of insects and microorganisms is called
used extensively as a soil and post-harvest fumigant for crops
Oxidation number of an element in its amalgam is
The electron acceptor in a redox reaction.
Which noble gas is not found in the atmosphere?
Which action should be taken to delay the nuclear meltdown?
Increase neutron absorbing rods in reactor
Candela is best defined as
the brightness of one square centimeter of platinum at its melting point
The extractive metallurgy which involves high temperature processes where chemical reactions take place
How are strong acids ionized when they are dissolved in water?
a class of organic compounds that contain nitrogen in addition to carbon and hydrogen.
What is the simplest primary amine?
Which statement regarding the ionization of water is true?
There will be a very low concentration of H+ ions in distilled water.
To measure the position of an object, what action must be taken with the momentum?
What scale does Nanotechnology use in the measurement, prediction, and construction of materials?
1 to 100 nanometers
Chalcogen comes from the Greek and means that the elements are
solid to vapor, skips liquid phase
What element readily sublimes?
what results in higher Equivalent conductance of NaCl?
Boyle's Law Definition
describes the inversely proportional relationship between the absolute pressure and volume of a gas, if the temperature is kept constant within a closed system.
Specific Heat of Water
Increase of atomic size ____________ the metallic character of the elements.
he kernels of metal atoms occupy fixed positions called lattice sites while space between the kernels is occupied by the valence electrons.
What always forms anions?
What always forms cations?
Alkali metals and alkaline earth metals
An isotope of hydrogen with one proton and one neutron in the nucleus having an atomic weight of 2.014
most common hydrogen isotope
a radioactive isotope of hydrogen
The pH of the endpoint depends upon the_______ used.
Gas particles always move
in straight lines
Nitric acid reacts with proteins to form yellow nitrated products
a solution that contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute.
Adding a solute to a saturated solution will
not effect the concentration
glucose, fructose, galactose
a solution made from a weak acid and its conjugate base that neutralizes small amounts of acids or bases added to it
Chemical equation of acid rain
SO3 + H2O → H2SO4
how bright a particular light is
Why is Thiophene added to propane gas when it is used as a fuel in laboratory work?
It acts as an odorant
moles of solute/kg of solvent
boiling point elevation
occurs when the boiling point of a solution becomes higher than the boiling point of a pure solvent
speed of light
3.00 x 10^8 m/s
Trends in Electron Affinity
how many elements are on the periodic table?
How many naturally occurring elements are the periodic table?
used to predict the rates of chemical reactions, particularly for gases.
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