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Pharmacology Ch. 13
Terms in this set (80)
Percutaneous medications may:
1. be OTC medications
2. be prescription medications
3. have local and systemic effect
4. have local effect only
5. be administered topically and transdermally
1, 2, 3, and 5
Topical medications may be in the form of:
3. compresses and dressings
4. creams and ointments
5. gels and lotions
1, 2, 3, 4, and 5
Before applying percutaneous medications, the allied health professional should
1. be sure the medication is in the dosage form of manufacture and has not changed
2. be sure the medication is not expired
3. check the skin for its proper integrity
4. cleanse the skin of any residual medications
5. be sure the skin is adequately hydrated
1, 2, 3, 4, and 5
Rates of absorption for transdermal medications by site from the SLOWEST to FASTEST are
thigh and forearm, back and chest, behind the ear
Soaks, compresses, and wet dressings
-are used to provide a cooling and antipyretic effect
-are used on blistered and oozing skin areas
-may be applied with bandages
-have an active ingredient in a water-based solution
Which of the following are true of creams and ointments?
1. Creams are used to deliver antipyretics.
2. Ointments deliver medications to the surface of the skin.
3. Creams deliver medications to and into the skin.
4. Ointments stay in contact with the skin longer than creams.
5. Creams prevent bandages from sticking to wounds.
1, 2, 3, and 4
When applying nitroglycerin ointment, the allied health professional should
-apply the ointment directly to the chest, arms, back, or thighs using the supplied paper
-be sure the site is relatively free of hair and scar tissue
-wear gloves to prevent contact with the ointment
-remove any residual medications from previous applications
-are used to control itching
-are used to relieve congestion and muscle and joint pain
-may contain a powder that leaves a film of medication at the site
-should be applied by stroking lightly in the direction of hair growth
Patches, disks, and dots
1. come prepackaged to provide an extended effect
2. are a painless and convenient means of administering medication
3. should be applied to the chest
4. provide a continuous release of medication
5. should be disposed of in open trash containers
1, 2, and 4
Patches, disks, and dots may be used therapeutically for
-nausea due to motion sickness
Patches are therapeutic for
Application of topical medications in older adult patients may require minimal friction because
-their skin is thin and will excoriate easily
-their skin has diminished sensation
-the blood supply is close to the skin surface and may cause bruising
-their skin is dry and flaky
Buccal and sublingual tablets
-are absorbed through the mucous membranes of the mouth
-should be used when the mouth is moist to allow for absorption
- may be used for treatment of angina
-must contain a label of "ophthalmic"
-must remain sterile
-should be administered in the conjunctival sac
should be at room temperature for administration
-may be administered by dropper, atomizer, or aerosol spray
-are commonly used as decongestants
-are relatively safe when used in small doses for a limited time
Inhaled medications may be
1. administered as MDIs
2. administered as either a vapor or a mist
3. administered in spray or powder form
4. rapidly absorbed because of the blood supply in the lungs
5. administered easily without patient education
1, 2, 3, and 4
Vaginal medications come in the forms of
Topical medications are applied to the surface of the skin for absorption.
Transdermal medications are delivered by patches or dots for absorption through the skin
Soap is essential for proper absorption of medications into the skin. This is the reason skin should be cleansed prior to applying transdermal medications.
Except in special treatment of wounds and rashes, the site of administration of topical medications should be clean and free of infection, rash, and dead tissue.
Skin should be moist when applying a powder so that it will adhere to the skin.
A thick layer of powder is more therapeutic than a thin covering.
Creams are in a fatty base, while ointments are in a water base.
Gels and pastes may be either oil- or water-based.
Spray medications should be held close to the skin so that the skin will be heavily covered with the medication.
Topical medications incur a risk in older adult patients because of thin skin and blood supply that is close to the skin surface.
The distance that topical sprays should be held from the skin will appear on the container label.
Buccal and sublingual medications may be swallowed and still maintain their effectiveness.
A patient may eat and drink immediately after the administration of buccal and sublingual tablets.
Nasal sprays may be used for conditions such as headaches, insulin, and smoking cessation.
In administering nasal medications, the head should be tilted forward for administration and then tilted backward for five minutes.
Rebound congestion may occur if nasal preparations are used on a daily basis over a prolonged period of time.
In using an MDI, the first dose opens the airways and the second dose penetrates into the deeper airways
The equipment that is used to provide medications by MDI should be thoroughly cleansed after each use to prevent medication buildup in the mouthpiece.
Nebulizers are used to provide powdered medications to the lungs.
Most vaginal medications are prescribed for use at bedtime.
Vaginal medications may be used as contraceptives.
Percutaneous medications are generally administered easily.
MDIs and DPIs deliver medications to the mucous membranes of the respiratory system for absorption.
Medications may be applied topically for local or systemic effects.
Percutaneous medications are fast acting in most instances.
Medications absorbed percutaneously in the mouth, rectum, and lungs act rapidly.
Percutaneous medications have a low incidence of adverse reactions.
Percutaneous administration of medications is as reliable as oral administration of medications.
Vigorous rubbing of a drug on a rash will ease the itching.
Nitroglycerin ointment residue should be removed with soap and water prior to application of a new dose of medication to prevent an overdose of the drug.
All transdermal medications should have the application of a new dose daily.
Lotions leave a cool feeling after applications because the water base leads to evaporation.
A spacer may be indicated with the use of an MDI medication.
Gels are thick water-based substances used as lubricants.
Transdermal medications have many applications for various conditions or diseases.
Soap and water should be used to prepare a site for a transdermal patch.
Skin of older adults is well hydrated so absorption occurs in a manner similar to that of a middle-aged person.
Sublingual medications are either sprays or small porous tablets.
Swallowing sublingual and buccal tablets increases the absorption rate.
Buccal medications may have systemic effects when absorbed in saliva and swallowed.
Sterile ophthalmic solutions may be used with a perforated tympanic membrane or with patients with tympanic tubes inserted.
Cold solutions instilled in the ear may cause nausea and vertigo.
Otic medications may be used as ophthalmic preparations.
Drugs should not be instilled directly on the cornea.
Drugs applied to the cornea will not produce pain because the cornea has no blood or nerve suppl
Rebound congestion occurs with excessive use of nasal preparations.
Use of nasal preparations for sinusitis and allergies is relatively safe when used for short periods of time and in small doses.
Drugs are being administered in increasing amounts through nasal passages because of the rapid absorption on the nasal mucosa.
Nasal preparations that spill into the throat should be swallowed for systemic effect.
Taking short, quick breaths will aid in the absorption of nasal preparations.
Vaginal preparations are best administered at bedtime with the woman lying down.
MDIs require less coordination than DPIs.
Over 50% of medication administered reaches the lower airway passages when either a DPI or MDI is used for medication administration.
Inhalation medications are in the forms of gases, sprays, powders, and liquids.
Nebulizers provide sprays of medication.
Rotadisks provide a spray form of medication.
Because of the rich blood supply found in the alveolar-capillary network, inhaled medications have a slow absorption rate.
Absorption through skin or mucous membranes
Absorption under the tongue
Absorption through skin surface
Absorption through mucous membranes of the mouth
Absorption through skin surfaces using patches or dots
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