A small to medium sized coniferous tree. Growth occurs in whorls of branches surrounding an upright leader or terminal, making a symmetrical tree with a broad base and narrow top. It is relatively short-lived and is considered a sub-climax type species in the New England states, but may be a climax type in the zone below timberline. Needles are 3/4 to 1 inch long, flat, and often strongly curved. Twigs with needles have a generally flattened appearance. Both male and female flowers are found on the same branch. Cones are 2 to 4 inches long, purplish in color, and stand erect on branches (as do those of all true firs). There are about 60,000 seeds in a pound. The bark is smooth, thin, and grayish, distinguished by soft blisters containing a clear, odiferous resin known as Canadian balsam. A large forest tree from 60 to 200 feet in height that can live up to 300 years or more. Its leaves or needles are 2 to 3 inches long, silvery-blue to silvery-green, extending at nearly right angles from all sides of the twig or more or less obscurely 2-ranked; flattened, stomatiferous above and below, rounded or acute at the apex. The upright cones are 2 to 5 inches long, oblong, olive-green to purple; bracts shorter than the scales, with short, broad erose shoulders, and spikelike tips. The bark is 4 to 7 inches thick on old trunks, ashy gray and divided by deep irregular furrows in thick, horny flattened ridges; young stems with conspicuous resin blisters. Native to central and southern Japan, growing at low to moderate altitudes of 50-1600 m. A medium-sized to large evergreen coniferous tree growing to 50 metres (160 ft) tall and 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) in trunk diameter, with a broad conical crown of straight branches rising at an angle of about 20° above horizontal. The bark is scaly grey-brown, with resin blisters on young trees. The shoots are grooved, buff to grey-brown, glabrous or finely pubescent. The leaves ("needles") are flattened, 2-5 centimetres (0.79-1.97 in) long and 2-4 millimetres (0.079-0.157 in) broad, spread at nearly right angles from the shoot; the apex is sharp, bifid (double-pointed) on the leaves of young trees, single-pointed on mature trees. They are bright green above, and greyish-green below with two broad stomatal bands. The cones are 7-15 centimetres (2.8-5.9 in) long by 3-5 centimetres (1.2-2.0 in) wide, green maturing yellow-brown, tapering to a 2-3 centimetres (0.79-1.18 in) broad bluntly rounded apex. The scale bracts are exserted 3-6 millimetres (0.12-0.24 in), triangular. The seeds are 7-9 millimetres (0.28-0.35 in) long with a wedge-shaped wing 1.5 centimetres (0.59 in) long, are released after the cones disintegrate at maturity in October. a small evergreen coniferous tree growing to between 30 and 50 feet (10-15 m) tall (rarely to 80 ft [25 m]) with a trunk 16 to 20 inches (40-50 cm) across (rarely up to 30 in, 75 cm). The crown is conical, with straight branches either horizontal or angled 40° upward from the trunk; it is dense when the tree is young, but becomes more open as it ages. The bark is thin and smooth, gray-brown with numerous resin blisters on young trees, becoming fissured and scaly with age. The foliage is strongly turpentine-scented. The leaves are needle-like, arranged spirally on the twigs but twisted at the base to spread in two rows; they are 0.4 to 0.9 inches (10-23 mm) long and 79 to 87 mils of an inch (2-2.2 mm) broad, flat and flexible with a rounded or slightly notched tip, dark green to glaucous green above, often with a small patch of stomata near the tip, and with two silvery white stomatal bands on the underside. The cones are erect, cylindric, 1.4 to 2.75 inches (3.5-7 cm) long (rarely to 3.2 in [8 cm]) and 1.0 to 1.2 inches (2.5-3 cm) broad (rarely as broad as 1.5 in [4 cm]) broad, dark purple, turning light brown when mature, with long reflexed green, yellow or pale purple bract scales, and often resinous. The cones disintegrate when mature at four to six months old to release the winged seeds. It grows at altitudes of 1,000-1,900 m in temperate rain forest with high rainfall and cool, humid summers, and heavy winter snowfall. It is a small to medium-sized evergreen coniferous tree growing to 10-18 m tall with a trunk diameter of up to 0.7 m, smaller and sometimes shrubby at tree line. The bark is smooth with resin blisters and grey-brown in colour. The leaves are needle-like, flattened, 1-2 cm long and 2-2.5 mm wide by 0.5 mm thick, glossy dark green above, and with two broad, vividly white bands of stomata below, and slightly notched at the tip. The leaf arrangement is spiral on the shoot, but with each leaf variably twisted at the base so they lie mostly either side of and above the shoot, with fewer below the shoot. The shoots are green-grey at first, maturing pinkish-grey, with scattered fine pubescence. The cones are 4-7 cm long and 1.5-2 cm broad, dark purple-blue before maturity; the scale bracts are long, green or yellow, and emerge between the scales in the closed cone. The winged seeds are released when the cones disintegrate at maturity about 5-6 months after pollination. It is a large evergreen coniferous tree growing to 60 m tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 2 m. In the Western Caucasus Reserve, some specimens have been reported to be 78 m and even 85 m tall, the tallest trees in Europe.
The leaves are needle-like, flattened, 1.8-3.5 cm long and 2 mm wide by 0.5 mm thick, glossy dark green above, and with two blue-white bands of stomata below. The tip of the leaf is usually blunt, often slightly notched at the tip, but can be pointed, particularly on strong-growing shoots on young trees. The cones are 10-20 cm long and 4-5 cm broad, with about 150-200 scales, each scale with an exserted bract and two winged seeds; they disintegrate when mature to release the seeds.
It occurs in the drier, colder northern regions of central China in Sichuan and Gansu provinces at elevations between 2300 and 3600 m, usually on windy cliffs or in deep river valleys. small to medium-sized tree mostly with conical crown, occasionally reaching a height of 40 m, and a trunk diameter of 0.8 metres (2 ft 7 in). It has rather smooth gray or rusty brown bark, at first shedding in thin plates, becoming grayish-brown and detaching in thick plates. The branchlets are grayish-white or light yellow with 1.2-2.5 centimetres (0.47-0.98 in) long needles horizontally outspreading on shade branches, radially outspreading on fertile branches; often thick and recurved, green to gray above and densely set with stoma-lines, with 2 light grayish-green stomatal bands below. has 4-8 centimetres (1.6-3.1 in) long ovoid or cylindrical-ovoid, gray- or purplish blue cones; the bracts are somewhat shorter than the cone-scales, included or with slightly exposed tips. opposite leaves, leathery
0.3 " to 1" ; long, approx. 0.25" wide
leaf apex notched
medium green color
leaves broadest at or above the middle
Broadleaf evergreen shrub, upright, to about 2 ft (0.6 m) tall, greater width, somewhat open; young branches slightly pubescent. Leaves opposite, simple, ovate to oblong, 1-2 cm long, margin inrolled, entire, medium green, truning brown in winter.
Sun to part shade. Very winter hardy.
a large tree, typically reaching heights of 40-60 m and a trunk diameter of up to 3 m (maxima, 69 m tall and 4.5 m diameter), and with a broad conic crown of spreading branches. The bark is orange-brown weathering grayish, smooth at first, becoming fissured and exfoliating in long strips on the lower trunk on old trees. The foliage is produced in flattened sprays with scale-like leaves 2-15 mm long; they are arranged in opposite decussate pairs, with the successive pairs closely then distantly spaced, so forming apparent whorls of four; the facial pairs are flat, with the lateral pairs folded over their bases. The leaves are bright green on both sides of the shoots with only inconspicuous stomata. The foliage, when crushed, gives off an aroma somewhat akin to shoe-polish. The buds are green in colour, globular in shape and very small at only 1 mm in length. There is one rank of leaves present on either side of the shoot, and these rise up above it and curve slightly inwards, forming a narrow V-shape somewhat akin to a dove's wings. Ranks are often vertical, but can be more flattened in shaded parts. Leaves are broadly linear in shape and measure about 5 cm long by 0.3 cm wide. Abruptly pointed at the apex, leathery in texture and a bright matte yellowish-green on the upper-surface. The abaxial surface, or underside of the leaves, shows two broad, pale to silvery stomatal bands. The species is dioecious and the male plants are typically densely covered with pairs of flowers that are pale cream in colour, though they become brown with time, and globular in shape. They are borne on 2 to 4 mm stalks beneath each pair of leaves. The female individuals have two pairs of knob-like globose flowers that appear on curved stalks at the bases of the shoots. The fruit is obovoid in shape and measures 2.5 cm long by 1.5 cm wide. They are a smooth and pale green ín colour with dark green stipes, though when ripe they turn brown. A cultivar 'Fastigiata' has more upright, columnar form a large evergreen tree, maturing up to 60 m (197 ft) tall or more, with trunks 1.2-2 m (4-7 ft) in diameter, with feathery foliage in flat sprays, usually somewhat glaucous blue-green in color. The leaves are scale-like, 3-5 mm long, with narrow white "x" markings on the underside, and produced on somewhat flattened shoots. The foliage gives off a rather pungent scent, not unlike parsley. The seed cones are globose, 7-14 mm diameter, with 6-10 scales, green at first, maturing brown in early fall, 6-8 months after pollination. The male cones are 3-4 mm long, dark red, turning brown after pollen release in early spring. The bark is reddish-brown, and fibrous to scaly in vertical strips. It is a slow-growing coniferous tree growing to 35-50 m tall with a trunk up to 2 m in diameter. The bark is red-brown, vertically fissured and with a stringy texture. The foliage is arranged in flat sprays; adult leaves are scale-like, 1.5-2 mm long, with pointed tips (unlike the blunt tips of the leaves of the related Chamaecyparis obtusa (Hinoki Cypress), green above, green below with a white stomatal band at the base of each scale-leaf; they are arranged in opposite decussate pairs on the shoots. The juvenile leaves, found on young seedlings, are needle-like, 4-8 mm long, soft and glaucous bluish-green. The cones are globose, 4-8 mm diameter, with 6-10 scales arranged in opposite pairs, maturing in autumn about 7-8 months after pollination. It is an evergreen coniferous tree growing to 20-28 m (rarely to 35 m) tall, with feathery foliage in moderately flattened sprays, green to glaucous blue-green in color. The leaves are scale-like, 2-4 mm long, and produced in opposite decussate pairs on somewhat flattened shoots; seedlings up to a year old have needle-like leaves. The seed cones are globose, 4-9 mm diameter, with 6-10 scales, green or purple, maturing brown in 5-7 months after pollination. The pollen cones are purple or brown, 1.5-3 mm long and 1-2 mm broad, releasing their yellow pollen in spring. It is typically occurring on wet sites in mountains, often close to the tree line, but sometimes also at lower altitudes, an evergreen tree to 40 m tall, commonly with pendulous branches. The foliage is in flat sprays, with dark green, 3-5 mm long scale-leaves. The cones have 4 (occasionally 6) scales, and resemble the cones of Mexican Cypress fairly closely, except being somewhat smaller, typically 10-14 mm diameter; each scale has a pointed triangular bract about 1.5-2 mm long, again similar to others and unlike the crescent-shaped, non-pointed bract on the scales of Chamaecyparis cones. Cultivar is 'Pendula' an evergreen tree growing to 10-25 m tall with a woody stem as large as 40-80 cm, rarely 1 m or more, in diameter The leaves are 5-12 cm long and 2-6 cm broad; they are evergreen, lasting about five years, and are dark green on the upper surface and lighter on the underside, oval, leathery, shiny, and about 5 to 9 cm long. In the young and in the lower limbs of mature trees, the leaves have three to five sharp spines on each side, pointing alternately upward and downward, while leaves of the upper branches in mature trees lack spines. The fruit is a red drupe, about 6-10 mm in diameter, a bright red or bright yellow, the flowers are white, four-lobed, and pollinated by bees. a medium-sized broadleaved evergreen tree growing to 10-20 m tall, exceptionally up to 30 m tall, with a trunk diameter typically up to 50 cm, exceptionally 120 cm. The bark is light gray, roughened by small warty lumps. The branchlets are stout, green at first and covered with rusty down, later smooth and brown. The winter buds are brown, short, obtuse or acute.
The leaves are alternate, 5-7.5 cm long and 2-4 cm broad, stiff, yellow green and dull matte to sub-shiny above, often pale yellow beneath; the edges are curved into several sharp, spike-like points, and a wedge-shaped base and acute apex; the midrib is prominent and depressed, the primary veins conspicuous; the petiole is short, stout, grooved, thickened at base, with a pair of minute stipules. The leaves remain on the branches for two to three years, finally falling in the spring when pushed off by growing buds
a shrub or small coniferous evergreen tree, very variable and often a low spreading shrub, but occasionally reaching 10 m tall. It has needle-like leaves in whorls of three; the leaves are green, with a single white stomatal band on the inner surface. It is dioecious, with male and female cones on separate plants, which are wind pollinated. The seed cones are berry-like, green ripening in 18 months to purple-black with a blue waxy coating; they are spherical, 4-12 mm diameter, and usually have three (occasionally six) fused scales, each scale with a single seed. The seeds are dispersed when birds eat the cones, digesting the fleshy scales and passing the hard seeds in their droppings. The male cones are yellow, 2-3 mm long, and fall soon after shedding their pollen in March-April reaching only 10-30 cm tall but often spreading several metres wide. The shoots are slender, 0.7-1.2 mm diameter. The leaves are arranged in opposite decussate pairs, or occasionally in whorls of three; the adult leaves are scale-like, 1-2 mm long (to 8 mm on lead shoots) and 1-1.5 mm broad. The juvenile leaves (on young seedlings only) are needle-like, 5-10 mm long. The cones are berry-like, globose to bilobed, 5-7 mm in diameter, dark blue with a pale blue-white waxy bloom, and contain two seeds (rarely one or three); they usually have a curved stem and are mature in about 18 months. The male cones are 2-4 mm long, and shed their pollen in early spring. It is dioecious, producing cones of only one sex on each plant. Cultivar - a low-growing shrubby juniper native to the southern Japan. Its status as a wild plant is disputed; some authorities treat it as endemic on high mountains on Kyūshū and a few other islands off southern Japan. It is a prostrate plant, which usually grows between 20-30 cm tall, although sometimes as high as 50 cm; while it does not get very tall it can get quite wide, 2-4 m across or more, with long prostrate branches. The branches tend to intertwine and form a dense mat. The leaves are arranged in decussate whorls of three; all the leaves are juvenile form, needle-like, 6-8 mm long and 1-1.5 mm broad, with two white stomatal bands on the inner face. It is dioecious with separate male and female plants. The cones are berry-like, globose, 8-9 mm in diameter, dark blackish-brown with a pale blue-white waxy bloom, and contain two or three seeds (rarely one); they are mature in about 18 months. The male cones are 3-4 mm long, and shed their pollen in early spring. It is dioecious, producing cones of only one sex on each plant. It is a shrub, very variable in shape, reaching 1-4 m tall. The leaves are of two forms, juvenile needle-like leaves 5-10 mm long, and adult scale-leaves 1-2 mm long on slender shoots 0.8-1 mm thick. Juvenile leaves are found mainly on seedlings but mature shrubs sometimes continue to bear some juvenile leaves as well as adult, particularly on shaded shoots low in the crown. It is largely dioecious with separate male and female plants, but some individual plants produce both sexes. The cones are berry-like, 5-9 mm in diameter, blue-black with a whitish waxy bloom, and contain 1-3 (rarely 4 or 5) seeds; they are mature in about 18 months. The male cones are 2-4 mm long, and shed their pollen in early spring. It is a coniferous evergreen shrub (rarely a small tree) reaching 2-10 m tall (rarely 15 m), with flaky brown bark, and a prostrate to irregularly conical crown. The leaves are broad needle-like, 3-9 mm long, arranged in six ranks in alternating whorls of three, and often strongly glaucous blue-green in colour. The cones are berry-like, globose to ovoid, 4-9 mm long and 4-6 mm diameter, glossy black, and contain one seed; they are mature in about 18 months. The male cones are 3-4 mm long, and shed their pollen in early spring. It is largely dioecious, with pollen and seed cones produced on separate plants, but occasionally monoecious. Cultivars are 'Blue star' (shown) and 'Meyerii' a dense slow-growing coniferous evergreen tree that may never become more than a bush on poor soil, but is ordinarily from 5-20 m or 16-66 ft (rarely to 27 m or 89 ft) tall, with a short trunk 30-100 cm or 12-39 in diameter. The oldest tree reported, from Missouri, was 795 years old. The bark is reddish-brown, fibrous, and peels off in narrow strips. The leaves are of two types; sharp, spreading needle-like juvenile leaves 5-10 cm long, and tightly adpressed scale-like adult leaves 2-4 mm long; they are arranged in opposite decussate pairs or occasionally whorls of three. The juvenile leaves are found on young plants up to 3 years old, and as scattered shoots on adult trees, usually in shade. The seed cones are 3-7 mm long, berry-like, dark purple-blue with a white wax cover giving an overall sky-blue color (though the wax often rubs off); they contain one to three (rarely up to four) seeds, and are mature in 6-8 months from pollination. The berry disperse the wingless seeds. The pollen cones are 2-3 mm long and 1.5 mm broad, shedding pollen in late winter or early spring a medium-size to large deciduous coniferous tree reaching 25-45 m tall, with a trunk up to 1 m diameter (exceptionally, to 55 m tall and 2 m diameter). The crown is conic when young, becoming broad with age; the main branches are level to upswept, with the side branches often pendulous. The shoots are dimorphic, with growth divided into long shoots (typically 10-50 cm long) and bearing several buds, and short shoots only 1-2 mm long with only a single bud. The leaves are needle-like, light green, 2-4 cm long which turn bright yellow before they fall in the autumn, leaving the pale yellow-buff shoots bare until the next spring. The cones are erect, ovoid-conic, 2-6 cm long, with 10-90 erect or slightly incurved (not reflexed) seed scales; they are green variably flushed red when immature, turning brown and opening to release the seeds when mature, 4-6 months after pollination. The old cones commonly remain on the tree for many years, turning dull grey-black. It is a small to medium-size boreal coniferous and deciduous tree reaching 10-20 metres (33-66 ft) tall, with a trunk up to 60 centimetres (24 in) diameter.The tamarack is not an evergreen. The bark is tight and flaky, pink, but under flaking bark it can appear reddish. The leaves are needle-like, 2-3 cm (0.8-1.2 in) short, light blue-green, turning bright yellow before they fall in the autumn, leaving the pale pinkish-brown shoots bare until the next spring. The needles are produced spirally on long shoots and in dense clusters on long woody spur shoots. The cones are the smallest of any larch, only 1-2.3 cm (0.4-0.9 in) long, with 12-25 seed scales; they are bright red, turning brown and opening to release the seeds when mature, 4 to 6 months after pollination. Key characteristics:
The needles are normally borne on a short shoot in groups of 10-20 needles.
The larch is deciduous and the needles turn yellow in autumn.
The seed cones are small, less than 2 cm (0.8 in) long, with lustrous brown scales.
Larch are commonly found in swamps, bogs, and other low-land areas.
It is a medium-sized to large deciduous coniferous tree reaching 20-40 m tall, with a trunk up to 1 m diameter. The crown is broad conic; both the main branches and the side branches are level, the side branches only rarely drooping. The shoots are dimorphic, with growth divided into long shoots (typically 10-50 cm long) and bearing several buds, and short shoots only 1-2 mm long with only a single bud. The leaves are needle-like, light glaucous green, 2-5 cm long; they turn bright yellow to orange before they fall in the autumn, leaving the pinkish-brown shoots bare until the next spring. The cones are erect, ovoid-conic, 2-3.5 cm long, with 30-50 reflexed seed scales; they are green when immature, turning brown and opening to release the seeds when mature, 4-6 months after pollination. The old cones commonly remain on the tree for many years, turning dull grey-black. Leaf: Deciduous, appearing singly on new growth and in whorls on older growth, 1 to 1 1/4 inches long, green to glaucous blue-green in color and turning yellow in the fall.
Flower: Species is monoecious; males light yellow, small and round; females yellow to red, with long, curved scales.
Fruit: Cones are 1 to 1 1/2 inches long, almost round, cone scales somewhat reflexed, flower-like in appearance, borne upright on the twig, maturing fall to early winter.
Twig: Gray-brown, bearing rounded buds. Spur shoots present on older growth.
Bark: On young trees the bark is scaly and gray, later becoming furrowed with a reddish brown inner bark.
Form: Well formed, and fast growing, with a straight stem and pyramidal crown, to 120+ feet. Lateral branches commonly droop.
It is a large, fast-growing evergreen coniferous tree growing 35-55 m (115-180 ft) tall and with a trunk diameter of 1 to 1.5 m. It can grow fast when young, up to 1 m (3 ft) per year for the first 25 years under good conditions, but becomes slower once over 20 m (66 ft) tall. The shoots are orange-brown and glabrous (hairless). The leaves are needle-like, 12-24 mm long, quadrangular in cross-section (not flattened), and dark green on all four sides with inconspicuous stomatal lines. The cones are 9-17 cm long (the longest of any spruce), and have bluntly to sharply triangular-pointed scale tips. They are green or reddish, maturing brown 5-7 months after pollination. The seeds are black, 4-5 mm long, with a pale brown 15 mm wing. A large coniferous evergreen tree which grows normally to 15 to 30 metres (49 to 98 ft) tall, but can grow up to 40 metres (130 ft) tall with a trunk diameter of up to 1 metre (3.3 ft). The bark is thin and scaly, flaking off in small circular plates 5 to 10 centimeters across. The crown is narrow - conic in young trees, becoming cylindric in older trees. The shoots are pale buff-brown, glabrous (hairless) in the east of the range, but often pubescent in the west, and with prominent pulvini. The leaves are needle-like, 12 to 20 mm long, rhombic in cross-section, glaucous blue-green above with several thin lines of stomata, and blue-white below with two broad bands of stomata. The bark is thin and scaly, becoming fissured in old trees. The crown is broad conic. The shoots are pale buff-brown, glabrous (hairless) but with prominent pulvini. The leaves are needle-like, 15-20 mm long, 2 mm broad, flattened in cross-section, dark green above with no stomata, and blue-white to white below with two dense bands of stomata. The cones are pendulous, slender cylindrical, 4-7 cm long and 2 cm broad when closed, opening to 3 cm broad. They have thin, flexible scales 12-18 mm long. They are green or reddish, maturing pale brown 5-6 months after pollination. The seeds are black, 3 mm long, with a slender, 6-8 mm long pale brown wing. It is a medium-sized evergreen tree growing to 20 m (66 ft) tall, exceptionally 40 m (131 ft), with a trunk diameter of up to 1 m (3 ft). The shoots are buff-brown, and densely pubescent (hairy). The leaves are needle-like, 10-20 mm long, flattened in cross-section, dark blue-green above, and blue-white below. The cones are 4-7 cm (2-3 in) long, fusiform (spindle-shaped, broadest in the middle), dark purple (almost black) when young, maturing dark brown 5-7 months after pollination, with stiff scales The shoots are buff-brown, and moderately pubescent (hairy). The leaves are needle-like, the shortest of any spruce, 6-8 mm long, rhombic in cross-section, dark green with inconspicuous stomatal lines. The cones are slender cylindric-conic, 5-9 cm long and 1.5 cm broad, red to purple when young, maturing dark brown 5-7 months after pollination, and have stiff, smoothly rounded scales. Red spruce is a perennial, shade-tolerant, late successional. coniferous tree which under optimal conditions grows to 18-40 meters tall with a trunk diameter of about 60 centimetres (24 in), though exceptional specimens can reach 46 m (151 ft) tall and 30 cm (12 in) diameter. It has a narrow conical crown. The leaves are needle-like, yellow-green, 12-15 millimetres (0.47-0.59 in) long, four-sided, curved, with a sharp point, and extend from all sides of the twig. The bark is gray-brown on the surface and red-brown on the inside, thin, and scaly. The wood is light, soft, has narrow rings, and has a slight red tinge. The cones are cylindrical, 3-5 centimetres (1.2-2.0 in) long, with a glossy red-brown color and stiff scales. The cones hang down from branches a slow-growing conifer which typically grows 30-50' tall in about the same number of years. Most ornamental feature is its exfoliating bark which peels, somewhat like a sycamore, to reveal an underlying patchwork of white, olive, light purple and silver, eventually becoming milky white at maturity... but, patience is required because it usually takes at least 10 years before the bark begins to exfoliate and longer before the signature milky white bark fully develops. Younger trees may exhibit some mottling, however. It is most often seen as a spreading multi-trunked tree, sometimes almost shrubby, however it can also be trained as a single trunk tree. Medium to dark green needles (2-4" long) are in bundles of three. Small, yellowish-brown cones to 2" long. Trees 12-15(-26) m tall; 60-90(-200) cm diameter, straight to contorted; crown conic, becoming rounded; growth form may be substantially altered near timberline (krummholz form occurs) or on very dry sites. Bark light grey, nearly smooth, becoming dark brown and cross-checked in age into scaly plates and ridges. Branches spreading to ascending, often persistent to trunk base; twigs pale red-brown, puberulous (rarely glabrous), slightly resinous, aging gray, tough and flexible, smooth. Buds ovoid, light red-brown, 0.9-1 cm, resinous; lower scales ciliolate along margins. Needles 5 per fascicle, spreading to upcurved and ascending, persisting 5-6 years, 3-7 cm × 1-1.5 mm, pliant, dark green, abaxial surface with less conspicuous stomatal bands than adaxial surfaces, adaxial surfaces with strong, pale stomatal bands, margins finely serrulate, apex conic-acute to acuminate; sheath 1-1.5(-2) cm, shed early. Staminate cones broadly ellipsoid-cylindric, ca. 15 mm, pale red or yellow. Ovulate cones maturing in 2 years, shedding seeds and falling soon thereafter, spreading, symmetric, lance-ovoid before opening, cylindro-ovoid when open, 7-15 cm long, yellow-brown, resinous, sessile to short-stalked, apophyses much thickened, strongly cross-keeled, umbo terminal, depressed. Seeds irregularly obovoid; body 10-15 mm, brown, sometimes mottled darker, wingless or nearly so. with leaves ('needles') in fascicles (bundles) of two, with a persistent sheath. They are 4.5-10 cm (1.8-3.9 in) long and 1.5-2 mm (0.059-0.079 in) thick. Cones are 5-9 cm (2.0-3.5 in) long, with thin, fragile scales; they are dark blue-purple before maturation, turning brown when ripe about 16-18 months after pollination. The 6-7 mm (0.24-0.28 in) long seeds have a 2-2.5 cm (0.79-0.98 in) wing and are wind-dispersed. is native to dry limestone soils in mountain areas of the Balkans, Italy and Greece. In its native habitat, it grows to 60-90' tall, but in cultivation, it typically grows to 30-40' tall. When young, this tree typically grows in a conical form. Glossy dark green needles (to 3 1/2" long) in pairs form dense foliage on ascending branches. Cones (2-3" long) are bluish-purple, but mature to brown. Mature bark is ash gray. the leaves ('needles') are in fascicles (bundles) of five (rarely 3 or 4), with a deciduous sheath. They are flexible, bluish-green, finely serrated, and 5-13 cm long, and persist for 18 months, i.e. from the spring of one season to the autumn of the next, when they are shed by abscission. The cones are slender, 8-16 cm long (rarely longer than that) and 4-5 cm broad when open, and have scales with a rounded apex and slightly reflexed tip. The seeds are 4-5 mm long, with a slender 15-20 mm wing, and are wind-dispersed. Cone production peaks every 3 to 5 years. The bark is thick, scaly dark grey-brown on the lower trunk, and thin, flaky and orange on the upper trunk and branches. The habit of the mature tree is distinctive due to its long, bare and straight trunk topped by a rounded or flat-topped mass of foliage. The shoots are light brown, with a spirally arranged scale-like pattern. On mature trees the leaves ('needles') are a glaucous blue-green, often darker green to dark yellow-green in winter, 2.5-5 cm long and 1-2 mm broad, produced in fascicles of two with a persistent grey 5-10 mm basal sheath; on vigorous young trees the leaves can be twice as long, and occasionally occur in fascicles of three or four on the tips of strong shoots. Leaf persistence varies from two to four years in warmer climates, and up to nine years in subarctic regions. Seedlings up to one year old bear juvenile leaves; these are single (not in pairs), 2-3 cm long, flattened, with a serrated margin. The bark on young trees is thin, smooth, gray, and contains numerous resin blisters. On mature trees, it is thick and corky. The shoots are brown to olive-green, turning gray-brown with age, smooth, though not as smooth as fir shoots, and finely pubescent with short dark hairs. The buds are a very distinctive narrow conic shape, 4-8 mm (0.16-0.31 in) long, with red-brown bud scales. The leaves are spirally arranged but slightly twisted at the base to lie in flattish either side of the shoot, needle-like, 2-3.5 cm (0.79-1.38 in) long, green above with no stomata, and with two whitish stomatal bands below. Unlike the Rocky Mountain Douglas fir, coast Douglas fir foliage has a noticeable sweet fruity-resinous scent, particularly if crushed. It is a large tree, reaching 25-40 m (rarely 44 m) tall and a trunk diameter of 2-3 m, rarely to 5 m. The bark is gray-brown to red-brown, shallowly vertically fissured, with a stringy texture. The leaves are borne on deciduous branchlets that are spirally arranged on the stem, but twisted at the base to lie in two horizontal ranks, 1-2 cm long and 1-2 mm broad; unlike most other species in the family Cupressaceae, it is deciduous, losing its leaves in the winter months, hence the name 'bald'. It is monoecious. Male and female strobili mature in about 12 months; they are produced from buds formed in the late fall, with pollination in early winter. The seed cones are green maturing gray-brown, globular, and 2-3.5 cm in diameter. They have from 20 to 30 spirally arranged, four-sided scales, each bearing one or two (rarely three) triangular seeds. The number of seeds per cone ranges from 20 to 40. The cones disintegrate when mature to release the large seeds. The seeds are 5-10 mm long, the largest of any species in the cypress family, and are produced every year, but with heavy crops every three to five years. The seedlings have three to 9 (most often six) cotyledons. a small- to medium-sized evergreen tree, growing 10-20 metres (33-66 ft) (exceptionally up to 28 metres (92 ft)) tall, with a trunk up to 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) (exceptionally 4 metres (13 ft)) diameter. The bark is thin, scaly brown, coming off in small flakes aligned with the stem. The leaves are flat, dark green, 1-4 centimetres (0.39-1.57 in) long and 2-3 millimetres (0.079-0.118 in) broad, arranged spirally on the stem, but with the leaf bases twisted to align the leaves in two flat rows either side of the stem, except on erect leading shoots where the spiral arrangement is more obvious. The leaves are highly poisonous.
The seed cones are highly modified, each cone containing a single seed 4-7 millimetres (0.16-0.28 in) long partly surrounded by a modified scale which develops into a soft, bright red berry-like structure called an aril, 8-15 millimetres (0.31-0.59 in) long and wide and open at the end.
It is a large to very large tree, ranging up to 65-70 metres (213-230 ft) tall and 3-4 metres (9.8-13.1 ft) in trunk diameter, exceptionally even larger. The foliage forms flat sprays with scale-like leaves in opposite pairs, with successive pairs at 90 degrees to each other. The foliage sprays are green above, and green marked with whitish stomatal bands below; they are strongly aromatic, with a scent reminiscent of pineapple when crushed. The individual leaves are 1 to 4 millimetres (0.039 to 0.157 in) long and 1 to 2 millimetres (0.039 to 0.079 in) broad on most foliage sprays, but up to 12 millimetres (0.47 in) long on strong-growing lead shoots. The cones are slender, 10 to 18 millimetres (0.39 to 0.71 in) long and 4 to 5 millimetres (0.16 to 0.20 in) broad, with 8 to 12 (rarely 14) thin, overlapping scales; they are green to yellow-green, ripening brown in fall about six months after pollination, and open at maturity to shed the seeds. The seeds are 4 to 5 mm long and 1 millimetre (0.039 in) broad, with a narrow papery wing down each side. The pollen cones are 3 to 4 millimetres (0.12 to 0.16 in) long, red or purple at first, shedding yellow pollen in spring a medium to large evergreen tree, reaching up to 40 m tall and 1.5 m trunk diameter, with red-brown bark which peels in vertical strips. The leaves are arranged in decussate pairs, scale-like, 3-10 mm long, glossy green above, and marked with vivid white stomatal bands below; they have a distinctive thick, almost fleshy texture. The seed cones are ovoid, 7-15 mm long and 6-10 mm diameter, with 6-12 thick scales, brown with a violet-white wax bloom when fresh. The trunk is usually straight and monopodial, but very rarely is forked.The crown is broadly conic, while the brownish bark is scaly and deeply fissured, especially with age. The twigs are a yellow-brown in colour with darker red-brown pulvini, and are densely pubescent. The buds are ovoid in shape and are very small, measuring only 1.5 to 2.5 mm in length. These are usually not resinous, but may be slightly so. The leaves are typically 15 to 20 mm (0.6 to 0.9 inches) in length, but may be as short as 5 mm (0.2 inches) or as long as 25 mm (1 inch). They are flattened and are typically distichous, or two-ranked. The bottom of the leaf is glaucous with two broad and clearly visible stomatal bands, while the top is a shiny green to yellow-green in colour. The leaf margins are very slightly toothed, especially near the apex. The seed cones are ovoid in shape and typically measure 1.5 to 2.5 cm (0.6 to 1 inch) in length and 1 to 1.5 cm (0.4 to 0.6 inches) in width. The scales are ovate to cuneate in shape and measure 8 to 12 mm (0.3 to 0.5 inches) in length by 7 to 10 mm (0.3 to 0.4 inches) in width. an evergreen coniferous tree growing up to 30m tall and 110 cm in trunk diameter under forest conditions. The crown is compact and pyramidal, growing up to 8 m wide. The bark is thick, reddish-brown and becomes fissured between scaly ridges. The branches are stout and usually horizontal, but often slightly drooping. The shoots are red-brown to orange-brown, and finely hairy. The leaves are 5-20 mm long and 1.8-2 mm broad, flattened, not tapering toward their ends, with a rounded or slightly notched apex; they radiate outward in all directions from the twigs, and smell of tangerine if crushed. They are glossy dark green above and paler on the underside, with two white stomatal bands. The cones are 2-4 centimetres (0.79-1.57 in) long, green, maturing light to mid-brown 6-7 months after pollination. When fully open, their scales are positioned at a right angle or reflexed to the central axis a large evergreen coniferous tree growing to 165-230 ft (50-70 m) tall, exceptionally 270 ft (82 m), and with a trunk diameter of up to 9 ft (2.7 m). The crown is a very neat broad conic shape in young trees with a strongly drooping lead shoot, becoming cylindric in older trees; old trees may have no branches in the lowest 100-130 ft (30-40 m). At all ages, it is readily distinguished by the pendulous branchlet tips. The shoots are very pale buff-brown, almost white, with pale pubescence about 1 mm long. The leaves are needle-like, 5-23 mm long and 1.5-2 mm broad, strongly flattened in cross-section, with a finely serrated margin and a bluntly acute apex. They are mid to dark green above; the underside has two distinctive white bands of stomata with only a narrow green midrib between the bands. They are arranged spirally on the shoots but are twisted at the base to lie in two ranks on either side of the shoot. The cones are small, pendulous, slender cylindrical, 14-30 mm long and 7-8 mm broad when closed, opening to 18-25 mm broad. They have 15-25 thin, flexible scales 7-13 mm long. The immature cones are green, maturing gray-brown 5-7 months after pollination. The seeds are brown, 2-3 mm long, with a slender, 7-9 mm long pale brown wing.