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Terms in this set (150)
Which is NOT one of the most common activities performed in investigations?
patrolling in the community and being on the lookout for crimes
Stings, decoys, undercover fencing operations, and stakeouts are types of
According to the information theory as it applies to the criminal investigation process,
the criminal investigation process resembles a battle between the police and the perpetrator over crime-related information
What is the process of collecting crime-related information in order to reach certain goals?
What is the ultimate goal of the criminal investigation process?
to reduce crime
The London Metropolitan police Department was established in the _____
The mid-1800s to the early 1900s in American policing has been characterized as the
political era of policing
What era of policing used investigative tactics like the dragnet roundup of suspects and the third degree?
Political era of policing
Which sentence is NOT accurate regarding history?
History is not important.
What kind of behaviors were NOT associated with the third degree?
What did NOT lead to the creation of state police agencies?
a decrease in crimes
Which of the following is NOT true about the FBI?
The FBI was created by J. Edgar Hoover in 1908.
Probable cause is a set of facts that
convinces a reasonable person that particular circumstances exist
Reasonable suspicion applies to
The legal question what would a reasonable person have thought or done under these circumstances relates to
Evidence that tends to exclude or eliminate someone from consideration as a suspect is
The standard of proof needed in trial in order to conclude that a defendant is guilty of a crime is
beyond a reasonable doubt
Identifying the perpetrator is basically the same thing as apprehending the perpetrator.
Luck and good fortune is rarely present in successful criminal investigations.
According to the entrapment theory, the criminal investigation process resembles a battle between the police and the perpetrator over crime-related information.
All criminal evidence depends on scientific analysis in order to be meaningful and useful.
Forensic science refers to the field of scientific study that addresses legal questions.
It is uncommon for investigators of one crime to discover information leading to being solved.
CSI accurately portrays the reality of criminal investigations.
With the system of the Parliamentary reward, a reward was offered by the government to anyone who provided information that led to the apprehension of criminals.
Thief-takers most often worked on behalf of the rich, not the poor.
In England, the role and position of the plain-clothes detective was immediately welcomed by the public.
At the time of the ratification of the U.S. Constitution, the policing function was almost exclusively a responsibility of the federal government.
In the political era of policing, detectives played a large and significant role in crime fighting.
The first identification system used in America for criminal investigation purposes was fingerprinting.
One of the primary advantages of private detective firms of the mid- to late 1800s (such as Pinkerton's) was that they operated without concern for political jurisdictional lines.
The system of policing from the early 1900s to the 1960s was known as the reform era
A cornerstone of community policing is that the police are the experts and the most effective without involvement of citizens in criminal investigations or other matters.
Because of the Lindbergh baby kidnapping, kidnapping became a federal offense and under FBI jurisdiction.
Fingerprints are always circumstantial evidence.
A defendant can be convicted of a crime with circumstantial evidence alone.
Circumstantial evidence is not necessarily less valuable than direct evidence in establishing proof.
A defendant's previous admission or confession may be admitted into court as hearsay.
A lay witness provides special knowledge about a fact of the case that needs examination.
Physicians, therapists, and forensic science technicians can all be possible expert witnesses
If a person is under arrest, then that person is generally not free to leave.
Most searches conducted by the police are conducted without a warrant.
The question "is the evidence and corresponding testimony based on scientific knowledge?" is associated with the Daubert test.
If a search is conducted without a warrant, then probable cause to conduct the search is rarely necessary.
When a vehicle is impounded due to a parking violation, the police can legally conduct an inventory search of that vehicle without a warrant or probable cause that the vehicle contains evidence.
Custodial interrogations require Miranda warnings, regardless of the severity of the offense.
If no-trespassing signs are posted on a property, then the police cannot legally search that area without a warrant.
Under search incident to lawful arrest, the police can legally search an entire house if the suspect who is arrested was within 60 feet of the house at the time of the arrest
The police can legally conduct a stop and frisk search of a person if that person looks suspicious and that person was never seen in the area before
When a motorist is stopped for a traffic violation, the officer may legally order the motorists out of their car.
Forensic evidence is most often used to
establish associations between offenders, victims, and instruments
According to Locard's exchange principle,
investigators should expect to find evidence at crime scenes
A ____ is the area within the immediate vicinity in which the criminal incident occurred or was believed to have occurred.
characteristic evidence has characteristics that can be identified as originating with a particular person or source.
Which field is NOT directly part of the specialty fields of forensic science?
With regard to cognitive interviewing, _______.
recreating the context of the original event is extremely important
_______ are usually non-accusatory and have the goal of developing information to move a criminal investigation forward.
is among the least reliable types of evidence yet is extremely persuasive in establishing proof.
Human memory consists of three phases:
encoding, storage, and retrieval
Which stage of memory can be affected by the lighting conditions, distance, and obstructed views?
The fundamental premise of ______ is that human beings do not move randomly throughout their environment.
______ are areas where an individual spends the majority of his/her time
Familiar routes to and from commonly visited areas create an individual's
______ is the area close to the perpetrator's home where the perpetrator has a strong inclination to not commit a crime.
________ is the concept that, as the distance away from a perpetrator's home increases, the chances of him/her committing a crime decreases.
___________ witnesses are individuals who have direct knowledge of the crime in question or of the suspected perpetrator of the crime.
_____________questions may distort the information retrieved from a witness's memory.
___________ is an altered state of consciousness that is characterized by increased responsiveness to suggestion.
The most significant benefit of ______________ is that it has been shown to be an effective tool in enhancing memory recall.
A ___________ witness is one who has information about related events before or after the crime.
Pry or tool marks on a window prove that a burglary occurred.
Physical evidence can act as direct or circumstantial evidence.
DNA analysis was first used in a criminal investigation in 1987 in England.
The most common types of biological evidence encountered are blood, semen, saliva, and hair.
Elimination prints are fingerprints of all persons who are known to have had legal access to the scene.
If lifted properly, fingerprints can always accurately indicate the source's age.
Criminalistics refers specifically to the science of physical evidence
Forensic anthropology refers to the science of dead bodies and autopsies.
Forensic entomology refers to the science of insects in answering legal questions.
Research shows that sketch artists almost always produce more-accurate facial images than technicians using other methods.
One of the reasons that some police departments do not distribute composite pictures of suspects is that they may generate false leads and contribute to an unproductive investigation.
False eyewitness identification is the primary cause of the conviction of innocent people
Statements made by other witnesses can affect a witness's retention of information. This highlights the importance of the police separating witnesses prior to interviewing them
Most research has come to the conclusion that hypnotically elicited testimony is deficient, especially when leading questions are asked of witnesses.
Investigators are placed in a very difficult situation if a witness describes the perpetrator as having a unique feature (a unique tattoo) that cannot be matched with other foils.
The most common reason suspects confess is, they believe that there is no point in denying the crime because the police have proof
For legal reasons, it is usually recommended that investigators should not be nice to suspects in interrogation settings.
The police may legally try to convince a suspect to waive his or her Miranda rights.
Most suspects agree to waive their Miranda rights. In turn, most suspects who waive their Miranda rights end up incriminating themselves.
Just as with hypnosis, it is best if investigators conducting interrogations know very little about the case at hand.
False confessions often occur after extremely long interrogation sessions
Fortunately, Miranda warnings are effective at preventing false confessions.
The recommendation that interrogations should be video-recorded has virtually no benefit for police or prosecutors.
Research has shown that voice stress analysis and the polygraph are similar in terms of validity and reliability of the results.
The theory underlying the use of the polygraph is basically that there is a relationship between a person's state of mind and his/her physiological state
Psychological and crime scene profiling are the same as offender profiling
Psychological profile of suspects can only be developed in cases such as serial homicide and rape.
Psychological profiling has been developed within the past five years or so.
One of the problems with the terms of MO and signature is that it is often not clear what is MO and what is signature.
Trauma to the victim's face usually indicates that the victims and the offender are strangers.
With regard to NCIC, it _____.
is a computerized information network operated by the FBI
The is modeled after the alerts that are used to notify people of impending severe weather.
________ are most often used by the police in ongoing undercover investigations.
What is the largest crime information network system in the United States operated by the FBI?
Which of the following is NOT a type of informant?
the victim informant
This type of informant is coerced by the police to provide information.
the hammered informant
Which of the following is NOT a feature gangs often have in common?
They are the same in every city.
With regard to homicides, _____.
most involve the use of a firearm
PMI refers to _____.
the estimated time of death
All death can be explained in one of four ways:
natural causes, accidents, suicides, and homicides
It is usually most difficult to differentiate suicides from _____ or suicides from _____.
Homicides most often occur as a result of____.
Which of the following is NOT a basic question that needs to be answered in a death investigation?
Why was the murder committed?
Rohypnol and GHB are _______.
so-called date rape drugs
The most important source of information in a rape investigation is _______.
The issue of _____ is unique in rape cases; it rarely, if ever, becomes an issue in other types of crimes.
Child abuse involves _____.
physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse
Which of the following is the most common form of child abuse?
Interviewing victims of sexual assaults should be conducted similarly to victims of other crimes.
A lack of consent in sexual assault cases can be established through a victim's statement, documentation of injuries, the use of a weapon, the circumstances of the crime, and the age of the victim
A signature aspect of a rape is everything that goes beyond what is necessary to commit the act.
First responders should minimize the number of times a victim goes over the details of the incident.
The focus of the interview of a sexual assault victim is the sexuality of the acts.
The identification of the perpetrator in child abuse and domestic violence investigations is the primary challenge investigators face.
Domestic violence is often underreported.
Psychological entrapment theory suggests that a woman has invested so much into the abusive relationship that she is willing to tolerate it rather than leave it.
A child's risk of being neglected decreases with age
The most common circumstance in which homicides occur are arguments between victim and the perpetrator.
The overwhelming majority of murder victims are murdered by strangers.
Usually, one of the most difficult tasks for investigators in homicide investigations is determining the identity of the decedent.
The presence of defensive wounds on a dead body is usually indicative of homicide as the manner of death.
After death, if insects found on the face are at the same stage of development as those in the pelvic region, it may mean that there was trauma to the pelvic region.
Wounds inflicted after death are generally more attractive to insects than wounds inflicted before death.
PMI estimates time of death through the changes a body goes through after death.
Cutting wounds present holes in the skin tissue.
Blunt force trauma is characterized by irregular or rough-edged lacerations, bruising, and possibly broken bones in the contact area.
Asphyxia is when a person is unable to breathe due to an action or material.
Ligature strangulation occurs through the use of hands.
Poisoning most often occurs as a result of a homicide.
Drug-overdose deaths are often about determining who supplied the drugs to the victim.
One of the problems with tip lines is that people may call to falsely report the conduct friends or associates.
One of the problems with telephone tip lines set up for specific high-profile crimes is that they usually receive very few calls
Facebook is not useful to investigators because they have to "Friend" the person they are investigating, and that person rarely accepts.
NCIC and NLETS are examples of interdepartmental databases.
Gangs have identifiers, such as colors or symbols, which are worn or shown through use of graffiti, tattoos, clothing, and hand symbols.
The public display of identifiers by gangs has increased in recent years to boast to the police that gangs are seemingly untouchable.
Gang members are disproportionately involved in crime.
Task forces have been developed that specifically focus on gathering gang intelligence.
There is no single definition of a gang
The mercenary informant is motivated by money to provide information to the police
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