35 terms

Chapter 23

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Cesar Chavez
-, (1) Mexican-American migrant farm worker & founder of the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee in 1963; (2) helped exploited Chicano workers with his successful "boycott grapes" movement that led to better pay, limits on the use of toxic fertilizers, and recognition of farm workers' collective bargaining right
United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC)
-, founded in 1962 by César Chávez, Philip Vera Cruz, Dolores Huerta, and Larry Itliong. This union changed from a workers' rights organization that helped workers get unemployment insurance to that of a union of farmworkers almost overnight
California Grape Boycott
-The disastrous great depression left many people unemployed. As a result, a large number of caucasian people took over many migrant workers' jobs in California. This left many Mexicans and Filipinos desperate and willing to do anything for money. Working conditions were poor for the huge population of migrant workers and illegal immigrants. There were unsanitary conditions and horrible wages. These conditions evoked anger between workers and employers and set the foundation for large-scale wage strikes for the next fifty years.
In the 1930's drought struck the southwest which forced more needy workers to move to California farms. Because of a greater demand for labor from these workers, farmers lowered wages and hired more people. In 1951 Public Law 78 was passed which connected workers in Mexico to farms in the U.S. This allowed U.S. farmers to hire "braceros" when there was a shortage of domestic farmhands. Farmers took advantage of this law by hiring mostly braceros because they would work longer days for less pay, and would tolerate the working conditions.Sometimes, whole families of "braceros" would only get paid twenty cents for three hours of work. Working families lived in small run down shacks or tents in crowded camps. If there wasn't enough room, some family members would sleep under bridges near by. In order to survive, families were forced to move to where work was available.By 1964 a movement arose and the union United Farm Workers Association (UFWA) was formed with 1,000 members. The farm workers wanted better wages and better working and living conditions. In August 1965, an independent walkout of Mexican and Filipino grape workers in Delano, California caught the leader and organizer of the UFW, Cesar Chavez's attention. An even larger strike led by the Filipinos against all the grape companies in the Delano area was supported by UFWA. When the strike was not successful in completely halting field work, Chavez organized a march to California's state capitol to inspire farm workers to join the Union. The march was effective in getting national attention, however, Chavez knew that neither the march nor the strike would be effective in getting the grape producers to negotiate. UFWA then decided to call a boycott of the Schenley Liquor Company who owned the vast majority of the vineyards in the San Joaquin Valley. This was a success and soon other grape producers were forced to sign contracts. Chavez sent representatives throughout the country to coordinate boycott meetings and fundraising efforts. For the next four years the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee decided to boycott all table grapes; this received wide public support. This boycott was the most successful in American history. In 1970 the pressure of the ongoing boycott resulted in the signing of contracts that provided workers with significant benefits.
Latinos
-, Issues - bad conditions, low pay ($1/hr), no respect, no right to an organized union, harsh, no bathrooms in fields, shared same water cup, high education dropout rate
Migrant workers
-, people, typically farmers, who move from place to place to harvest fruits and vegetables
Chicano
-, a term meaning "Mexican American", it's positive and it demonstrates a love for one's indigenous roots
Brown Berets
-, Activist group formed in 1967 in response to police treatment of Mexican Americans.
La Raza Unida
-, A United States third political party. Its official name is Partido Nacional de La Raza Unida. It was the first third party to be formed around ethnic lines. The party was termed La Raza in reference to the Mestizo people.
America Indian Movement (AIM)
-, AIM, meant to spread knowledge of discrimination against Indians. Seized Bureau of Indian affairs in Washington, DC. Goal is to further Native Americans within the United States through education and employment. Issues with police brutality and community development.
"Trail of Broken Treaties" March
-, 1971 - AIM gathered members from across the country to a protest in Washington, D.C.; occupied Bureau of Indian Affairs in DC; found BIA files that showed that 42% of Indian women had been sterilized in IHS clinics without consent
Occupation of Wounded Knee, S.D.
-, site of 1890 massacre of Sioux by federal troops; members of AIM seized/occupied wounded knee for 2 months; demanded radical changes and for the government to honor its long-forgotten treaty obligations
Indian Education Act
-, Native Americans won greater rights threw the court. This act gave them greater control over their land and children's education
Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act
-, 1974 act that granted Native American tribes control of federal aid programs on the reservations and oversight of their own schools
Feminism
-, A movement or doctrine that advocates or demands for women the same rights granted men, such as equal economic or political status.
Betty Friedan
-, 1921-2006. American feminist, activist and writer. Best known for starting the "Second Wave" of feminism through the writing of her book "The Feminine Mystique".
The Feminine Mystique
-, written by Betty Friedan, journalist and mother of three children; described the problems of middle-class American women and the fact that women were being denied equality with men; said that women were kept from reaching their full human capacities
National Organization for Women (NOW)
-, Founded in 1966, the National Organization for Women (NOW) called for equal employment opportunity and equal pay for women. NOW also championed the legalization of abortion and passage of an equal rights amendment to the Constitution.
Gloria Steinem
-, An American feminist, journalist, and social and political activist who became nationally recognized as a leader of, and media spokeswoman for, the women's liberation movement in the late 1960s and 1970s.
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
-, A constitutional amendment originally introduced in Congress in 1923 and passed by Congress in 1972, stating that "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex." Despite public support, the amendment failed to acquire the necessary support from three-fourths of the state legislatures.
Roe v. Wade
-, '73 Supreme ct decision that stuck down 46 state laws restricting women's access to abortion (highlighted divisions within women's mvmt
Phyllis Schlafly
-, 1970s; a new right activist that protested the women's rights acts and movements as defying tradition and natural gender division of labor; demonstrated conservative backlash against the 60s
the New Right
-, Politically active religious conservatives who became particularly vocal in the 1980's. The New Right criticized feminism, opposed abortion and homosexuality, and promoted "Family values" and military preparedness.
Counterculture
-, a culture with lifestyles and values opposed to those of the established culture
Timothy Leary
-, Former Harvard psychologist who experimented with psychoactive drugs (including LSD) and became a well-known advocate of their use as a way to open and expand the mind.
New Left beliefs and Counterculture
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Hippies
-, Believed in anti-materalism, free use of drugs, they had a casual attitude toward sex and anti-conformity, (1960s) practiced free love and took drugs, flocked to San Francisco- low rent/interracial, they lived in communal "crash pads", smoked marijuana and took LSD, sexual revolution, new counter culture, Protestors who influenced US involvement in Vietnam
Haight-Ashbury
-, Haven for young people seeking an alternative to the straight world in 1965. Was located in San Francisco
Communes
-, In Communist China, a collective farm on which a great number of people work and live together.
Janis Joplin
-, lead singer of the psychedelic/acid rock band, Big Brother and the Holding Company
Jimi Hendrix
-, A twentieth-century American musician known for his highly amplified, innovative work on the electric guitar with his most famous group, 'The ___ ___ Experience'. Despite his death at the age of twenty-seven, he greatly influenced the changing world of rock 'n' roll, and was known for lighting his Fender Stratocaster on fire, as well as his amazing rendition of 'The Star Spangled Banner' on electric guitar, which was performed at the famous Woodstock festival.
Motown
-, A record company, originally from Detroit, that moved to Los Angeles in 1971. Also the associated style- a fusion of gospel, rock and roll, and rhythm and blues
Andy Warhol
-, An American commercial illustrator and artist famous for his Campbell's soup painting. He was the founder of the pop-art movement, which like all other art movements in history reflected something back on the present society.
The Beatles
-, A rock 'n' roll singing group from Liverpool, England that was phenomenally popular in the middle and late 1960s. The intense devotion of the groups fans, especially the hysterical screaming that the group provoked in large crowds of large teenagers was called ______mania. The four members were John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr. Among their many popular songs, most of which were written by Lennon and McCartney, were "I Want to Hold Your Hand" and "Hey, Jude."
Woodstock
-, 3 day rock concert in upstate N.Y. August 1969, exemplified the counterculture of the late 1960s, nearly 1/2M gather in a 600 acre field
Conservative Backlash
-, a sudden reaction against the liberalism of the 1960's. white working class and middle class saw protests as an unprincipled attack on traditional values: hard work, family, religion, patriotism, and respect for law and order. blamed Johnson and Warren Court
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