US HISTORY 1302. CHAPTER 15 - 21

Terms in this set (93)

Cash and Carry
- Britain and France needed American supplies
- On September 21st, 1939, the U.S. passed another Neutrality Act (of 1939)
- It allowed for European nations to buy from the U.S:
- Military weapons
- Equipment
- Various supplies
- Only on a "Cash and Carry" basis
- Specifically to help the Allies
- They had to pay cash
- They had to use their own ships
- Britain had a strong navy

The Lend-Lease Law
- Britain was running out of money for Cash and Carry
- FDR came up with the Lend-Lease Program
- U.S. would lend military weapons, equipment and supplies
- Given specifically to nations at war with Axis Powers
- They would be returned to the U.S. when no longer needed
- It was like lending chewing gum back after its been chewed
- FDR feared Britain was on verge of collapse
- Best way for U.S. to stay out of war
- Was to help Britain win
- FDR also feared the China would fall to Japan
- China needed war materials as well
- Congress debated the lend-lease bill
- It passed on March 11th, 1941
-$50 billion worth of weapons, equipment and supplies lent by war's end
- This clearly ended the U.S. neutrality policy
- Hitler recognized this as well
- German subs began attacking all U.S. Ships:
- Merchant or Armed
It was illegal to go into war zones, which

Freedom of the Seas
limits freedom of the seas
It was illegal to go into war zones, which limits freedom of the seas

Tripartite Pact
- On September 27th, 1940, Italy, Germany, and Japan signed the Tripartite Pact
- This created the Axis Powers
- If any of the 3 nations went to war with any nation
- The other two would declare war against them as well
- Specifically designed for when the U.S. joined the war
From December, 1941 to May, 1945, the "Battle of the Atlantic" took place
- Longest uninterrupted military engagement of war
- German submarines proved very effective
- Sank several U.S. and Allied ships in Atlantic Ocean (convoys)
- Known as "the happy time"
- In six months (January thru June 1942)
- 382 U.S. merchant ships sunk
- Total of 3 million tons of supplies
- U.S. began building anti-sub military vessels
- Destroyers and light carriers
- Specifically designed to fight German U-boats
- Began to have an effect
- Admiral Doenitz changed tactics
- Created "wolf packs" to attack "Black Pit"
- Multiple German U-boats attacking at once
- "Black Pit" located in North Atlantic
- Beyond allied plane patrols
- Convoys were vulnerable
- 102 ships were sunk
- 2.5 million tons/supplies lost - In March 1943, the German Submarine "enigma" code was broken by the British - Learned where German Submarines were located
- Allow Allies to hunt down and sink German U-Boats
- Until the Germans changed their code
- U-505 was captured by U.S. - June 4th, 1944 (inspired movie U-571)
- Escort carrier Guadalcanal led the way (in South Atlantic Ocean)
- Code books, cipher machines, charts of minefields, other intelligence
- Germany recorded U-505 as sunk and lost
- They never knew it was captured
- Reason for heavy German U-boat losses
- In final year of Battle of Atlantic
- Battle of Atlantic was fought until Germany surrendered (May 7th, 1945)
- Allied losses 72,200 sailors killed
32,825 merchant vessels were sunk
175 naval warships sunk
- German losses 30,000 sailors killed
783 U-boats sunk (out of about 1,000 built)